Consideration of sexual dimorphism, age, and asymmetry in quantitative measurements of muscle insertion sites

Consideration of sexual dimorphism, age, and asymmetry in quantitative measurements of muscle... Variation in entheses has been attributed to repetitive mechanical stress, but age, sex, and genetics may also affect entheses. In this study, the insertion areas of the pronator teres, biceps brachii, deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres minor and subscapularis were measured. The skeletal sample included 137 American Blacks and Whites from the Terry and Hamann‐Todd Human (20th century) collections and 238 skeletons from Hawikuh, New Mexico (1300–1680 AD); Indian Knoll, Kentucky (3300–2000 BC); Hardin Village, Kentucky (1500–1620 AD); Kushkokwim River, Alaska (protohistoric); and Mummy Cave, Alaska (protohistoric). There was no significant sexual dimorphism at Hawikuh, moderate levels for Indian Knoll and Hardin Village (12.8–15.2%), and high levels for Kushkokwim River and Mummy Cave (22.6–32.8%). All significant differences in these levels occurred between Alaskan and non‐Alaskan populations. These findings suggest that cultural or genetic adaptations to climatic differences explain some of the variation in sexual dimorphism of the insertion areas. Lateral asymmetry in insertion areas show reduced levels of right‐sided dominance when compared to maximum humeral length. Correlations between the frequency of longer right humeri and the frequency of handedness found in modern populations may be a by‐product of developmental processes. The increased symmetry for muscle insertions indicates a closer correspondence to the true pattern of mechanical stress since many tasks involve both limbs. Males and females had smaller insertion areas in their 20s than in their 30s and 40s, but the difference was only significant for males. The greater differences between younger and older males when compared to females can be explained by the delayed physical maturation of males. There were no significant differences in humeral measurements with age. These results suggest that activity‐related studies not rely solely on epiphyseal fusion of the long bones to estimate physical maturity. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Osteoarchaeology Wiley

Consideration of sexual dimorphism, age, and asymmetry in quantitative measurements of muscle insertion sites

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN
1047-482X
eISSN
1099-1212
DOI
10.1002/(SICI)1099-1212(1998090)8:5<311::AID-OA443>3.0.CO;2-E
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Variation in entheses has been attributed to repetitive mechanical stress, but age, sex, and genetics may also affect entheses. In this study, the insertion areas of the pronator teres, biceps brachii, deltoid, pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, teres minor and subscapularis were measured. The skeletal sample included 137 American Blacks and Whites from the Terry and Hamann‐Todd Human (20th century) collections and 238 skeletons from Hawikuh, New Mexico (1300–1680 AD); Indian Knoll, Kentucky (3300–2000 BC); Hardin Village, Kentucky (1500–1620 AD); Kushkokwim River, Alaska (protohistoric); and Mummy Cave, Alaska (protohistoric). There was no significant sexual dimorphism at Hawikuh, moderate levels for Indian Knoll and Hardin Village (12.8–15.2%), and high levels for Kushkokwim River and Mummy Cave (22.6–32.8%). All significant differences in these levels occurred between Alaskan and non‐Alaskan populations. These findings suggest that cultural or genetic adaptations to climatic differences explain some of the variation in sexual dimorphism of the insertion areas. Lateral asymmetry in insertion areas show reduced levels of right‐sided dominance when compared to maximum humeral length. Correlations between the frequency of longer right humeri and the frequency of handedness found in modern populations may be a by‐product of developmental processes. The increased symmetry for muscle insertions indicates a closer correspondence to the true pattern of mechanical stress since many tasks involve both limbs. Males and females had smaller insertion areas in their 20s than in their 30s and 40s, but the difference was only significant for males. The greater differences between younger and older males when compared to females can be explained by the delayed physical maturation of males. There were no significant differences in humeral measurements with age. These results suggest that activity‐related studies not rely solely on epiphyseal fusion of the long bones to estimate physical maturity. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Journal

International Journal of OsteoarchaeologyWiley

Published: Sep 1, 1998

References

  • Activity‐induced musculoskeletal stress markers (MSM) and subsistence strategy changes among ancient Hudson Bay Eskimos
    Hawkey, Hawkey; Merbs, Merbs
  • Prehistoric arthritis in the Americas
    Bridges, Bridges
  • Skeletal markers of occupational stress in the fur trade: a case study from a Hudson's Bay Company fur trade post
    Lai, Lai; Lovell, Lovell
  • Asymmetry and activity‐related change in the male humerus
    Stirland, Stirland
  • Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): Forestier's disease with extraspinal manifestations
    Resnick, Resnick; Shaul, Shaul; Robins, Robins
  • Handedness and directional asymmetry in the long bones of the human upper limb
    Steele, Steele; Mays, Mays
  • Growth and development of human muscle: a quantitative morphological study of whole vastus lateralis from childhood to adult age
    Lexell, Lexell; Sjöström, Sjöström; Nordlund, Nordlund; Taylor, Taylor

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