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Congenital scalp defects and vitreoretinal degeneration: Redefining the Knobloch syndrome

10.1002/ajmg.1320460221.abs An apparently autosomal recessive syndrome of hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (VRD) with retinal detachment, high myopia, and congenital encephalocele was described in 1971 by Knobloch and Layer (J Pediatr Ophthalmol 8:181–184). Clinical confirmation of the presence of encephaloceles was lacking, and no neuropathologic studies were reported. We have evaluated a similarly affected family with 2 sibs with high myopia, VRD, and occipital scalp defects. Histologic examination of the scalp defects showed heterotopic neuronal tissue in both instances. The older girl has had a unilateral retinal detachment. Her other eye and both eyes of the younger sib have so far been treated successfully with prophylactic retinal cryotherapy. Both children have normal to above normal intelligence. The family reported by Knoblock and Lyer (1971) and the sibship herein described appear to represent a distinct autosomal recessive trait. Analysis of the associated defects suggests an underlying defect in early cephalic neuroectodermal morphogeneis. Data from these families imply that congenital occipital scalp defects rather than true encephaloceles may, as is true in some cases of Meckel syndrome, accompany Knobloch syndrome. The presence of a congenital midline scalp defect should alert the clinician to possible underlying central nervous system and/or ocular pathology and should lead to consideration of further diagnostic evaluations And prophylactic measures. © 1993 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Medical Genetics Wiley

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