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AbbreviationsASaerial seedingBLUPsbest linear unbiased predictorsCVcoefficient of variabilityTAFtractor‐mounted air‐flow spreaderTBStractor‐mounted broadcast spreaderIn recent decades, the 2‐yr corn (Zea mays L.)–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation has come to dominate the agricultural landscape in the upper Midwest (Randall, 2003; Karlen, 2004), despite potential environmental consequences. This mainly occurred to offset losses in corn and soybean land area in the southern United States (Hart, 2006), but also because of increased uses for the two crops for industrial purposes, particularly in the food and transportation industries (Karlen et al., 2006; Wallendar et al., 2011). The United States is also a large player in the world trade market, exporting 10 to 20% of its corn and approximately 50% of its soybean crops each year (USDA, 2017, 2018). Despite the economic benefits of this cropping system, it degrades soil quality over time (Karlen et al., 2006) and can result in significant losses of nitrate (NO3–N) to ground and surface waters (Dinnes et al., 2002; Oquist et al., 2007; Tomer and Liebman, 2014). Research has shown that excess N is the main cause of hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico (Rabalais et al., 2001). Of the Mississippi watersheds, the Upper Mississippi Basin contributes 40% of the
"Agrosystems, Geosciences & Environment" – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2019
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