Coastal–marine protected areas: agonies of choice

Coastal–marine protected areas: agonies of choice G. CARLETON RAY* Department of En6ironmental Sciences, Uni6ersity of Virginia, Charlottes6ille, VA 22903, USA KEY WORDS: coastal–marine; choice; protected areas INTRODUCTION Protected areas are widely perceived as ‘magic bullets’ to be launched against overexploitation, pollution, and development, and to ‘protect’ cherished human values. However, it has not yet become apparent how they fit into the total scheme of things, which has been labelled the ‘ecosystem’. This is particularly true for coastal and marine protected areas, which are a relatively new phenomenon. Gare (1976) observed: ‘As with the establishment of parks on land, the beginnings consisted of isolated steps, probably initiated by individual enthusiasts whispering in the right ear, and there was no concerted movement based on a rational program of resource and need assessment . . . There was an initial land-base, so that in no case does it seem that the primary consideration was the marine ecosystem’. Gare identified as among the first formal marine protected areas (not including the many ‘traditional’ sites): Glacier Bay National Monument in Alaska (1925), Fort Jefferson National Monument in Florida (1935), Green Island in Queensland, Australia (1938), and a few similar protected areas that were established through the early post-World War http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems Wiley

Coastal–marine protected areas: agonies of choice

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ISSN
1052-7613
eISSN
1099-0755
DOI
10.1002/(SICI)1099-0755(199911/12)9:6<607::AID-AQC389>3.0.CO;2-T
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

G. CARLETON RAY* Department of En6ironmental Sciences, Uni6ersity of Virginia, Charlottes6ille, VA 22903, USA KEY WORDS: coastal–marine; choice; protected areas INTRODUCTION Protected areas are widely perceived as ‘magic bullets’ to be launched against overexploitation, pollution, and development, and to ‘protect’ cherished human values. However, it has not yet become apparent how they fit into the total scheme of things, which has been labelled the ‘ecosystem’. This is particularly true for coastal and marine protected areas, which are a relatively new phenomenon. Gare (1976) observed: ‘As with the establishment of parks on land, the beginnings consisted of isolated steps, probably initiated by individual enthusiasts whispering in the right ear, and there was no concerted movement based on a rational program of resource and need assessment . . . There was an initial land-base, so that in no case does it seem that the primary consideration was the marine ecosystem’. Gare identified as among the first formal marine protected areas (not including the many ‘traditional’ sites): Glacier Bay National Monument in Alaska (1925), Fort Jefferson National Monument in Florida (1935), Green Island in Queensland, Australia (1938), and a few similar protected areas that were established through the early post-World War

Journal

Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater EcosystemsWiley

Published: Nov 1, 1999

References

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