G. CARLETON RAY* Department of En6ironmental Sciences, Uni6ersity of Virginia, Charlottes6ille, VA 22903, USA KEY WORDS: coastalâmarine; choice; protected areas INTRODUCTION Protected areas are widely perceived as âmagic bulletsâ to be launched against overexploitation, pollution, and development, and to âprotectâ cherished human values. However, it has not yet become apparent how they fit into the total scheme of things, which has been labelled the âecosystemâ. This is particularly true for coastal and marine protected areas, which are a relatively new phenomenon. Gare (1976) observed: âAs with the establishment of parks on land, the beginnings consisted of isolated steps, probably initiated by individual enthusiasts whispering in the right ear, and there was no concerted movement based on a rational program of resource and need assessment . . . There was an initial land-base, so that in no case does it seem that the primary consideration was the marine ecosystemâ. Gare identified as among the first formal marine protected areas (not including the many âtraditionalâ sites): Glacier Bay National Monument in Alaska (1925), Fort Jefferson National Monument in Florida (1935), Green Island in Queensland, Australia (1938), and a few similar protected areas that were established through the early post-World War
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems – Wiley
Published: Nov 1, 1999
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