AbbreviationsA‐DMEMAdvanced Dulbecco's modified Eagle's mediumCMFConditioned medium from fibroblastsCMSMCConditioned medium from smooth muscle cellsCKCytokeratinEGFEpidermal growth factorFBSFetal bovine serumFFibroblastsTPPLPolystyrene tissue culture flasksKSFMSerum‐free keratinocyte growth mediumSMCSmooth muscle cellsUPUroplakinUUrothelial cellsZOZonula occludensIntroductionReconstructive urologic surgery of the urinary bladder is routinely performed on patients, for the treatment of diverse conditions, including congenital anomalies, bladder dysfunction, trauma, and cancer (Atala, ; Southgate et al., ). Over the last few decades, researchers are struggling for optimization of urothelial cell culture systems, which could lead to the development of reliable and highly functional bladder replacements. Tissue engineering technology can provide the surgeon with autologous material for urological application (Fossum et al., ; Sievert et al., ), but the main obstacle to routine application is the lack of establishment and the difficulty of maintenance of differentiated urothelial cells in vitro.The urothelium is a three to five layered transitional epithelium covering the mucosal surface of the renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, and proximal urethra (Romih et al., ). It exhibits a regular architecture, increasing in morphological complexity from poorly differentiated basal cells, through partially differentiated intermediate cells, to the highly differentiated superficial cells also named umbrella cells (Jost et al., ). The umbrella cell layer is primarily responsible for maintenance
Cell Biology International – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;
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