INTRODUCTIONProstate cancer screening is accomplished by digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum prostate‐specific antigen (PSA) testing in at risk populations. Men with an elevated age‐specific serum PSA, serum PSA velocity of >0.35 ng/mL per year, or abnormal DRE are believed to be at risk for harboring occult prostate cancer thereby warranting discussion about the merits of prostate needle biopsy. The serum PSA test, however, has limitations in that non‐malignant conditions such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatic inflammation can generate non‐specific PSA elevations. Therefore, a high PSA may theoretically yield unnecessary prostate biopsy with resultant complications including infection, bleedings, urinary retention, and pain. Additional concerns entail the psychological stress about possibly having prostate cancer. Therefore, more specific biomarkers for prostate cancer are needed to make a more accurate recommendation for prostate biopsy.MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non‐coding RNAs that have the potential to be biomarkers for prostate cancer. They regulate gene expression, post‐transcriptionally, by targeting messenger RNA (mRNAs) and inhibiting their translation. They have been shown to be either down‐regulated or up‐regulated in cancers as well as involved in cellular processes that influence tumorigenesis such as differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis, thus suggesting their role in cancers. For prostate cancer, studies
The Prostate – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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