Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Anti-melanogenic Activities
of Essential Oils from Chrysanthemum boreale M
Dae Il Hwang,
Soo Min Park,
Hwan Myung Lee*
Department of Cosmetic Science, College of Life and Health, Hoseo University, Asan 31499, Korea,
College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Institute of Science and Technology, Yueyang 414006,
P. R. China
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea
In the present study, the chemical compositions and skin whitening-related antioxidant and anti-melanogenic
effect of essential oils (EOs) extracted from Chrysanthemum boreale M
(CBM) (CBMEOs) at vegetative, pre-
ﬂowering and full-ﬂowering are investigated and contrasted among the three stages. The yields and components of
the CBMEOs were different at each stage. The CBMEOs increased DPPH and ABTs scavenging activities and attenuated
the a-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a-MSH)-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in B16BL6 cells.
Among CBMEO components, eugenol had the highest DPPH and ABTs scavenging activities and cuminaldehyde was
the strongest inhibitor of a-MSH-induced tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis. The CBMEOs in each stage showed
the different levels of phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 and p38 MAPK. These ﬁndings
demonstrate that the CBMEOs have antioxidative and anti-melanogenic activities in all the CBM harvesting stages,
resulting in skin-whitening biological activities and that the levels of their component contents and bioactivities differ
among the CBM harvesting stages. The CBMEOs may have the potential for use in cosmetics and alternative medicine.
Keywords: Chrysanthemum boreale M
, ﬂowering stages, essential oil, chemical composition, bioactivity.
Chrysanthemum boreale M
(CBM), a member of the
Compositae family, is a perennial herbaceous plant
with a wide distribution in Asia including Korea, China,
[1 – 3]
The Chrysanthemum boreale species
including CBM are widely used as medicinal plants due
to their biological properties such as antitumor, anti-
inﬂammation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-hypertension,
and antibacterial action.
are used as ingredients in cosmetics, foods, and folk
medicines, and have antioxidant activation and anti-
[1 – 3]
Chrysanthemum boreale spe-
cies have essential oils (EOs), ﬂavonoids, polyacetylenes,
and some components with biological activities.
EOs have antimicrobial, anti-viral, and antioxidant
and ﬁnd application as functional
ingredients isolated from natural sources in cosmetics,
pharmaceutical, food, and fragrance industries.
EOs of Chrysanthemum boreale species have diverse
biological and pharmacological activities including skin
regeneration and wound healing activity.
Skin color is mainly determined by the content of
an epidermal pigment, melanin, which protects
against ultraviolet radiation.
The ﬁrst step of mela-
nogenic pathway is the conversion of
-dopaquinone that is catalyzed by tyrosinase, a rate-
Therefore, activity inhibition of
tyrosinase or its production may be a useful strategy
to prevent melanogenesis. Many skin-whitening prod-
ucts contain tyrosinase inhibitors that can prevent or
treat abnormal skin pigmentation.
[11 – 13]
skin-whitening products that contain chemical depig-
menting agents have side effects such as dermatitis,
erythema, genotoxicity or skin irritation.
safer and more effective depigmenting agents for skin
whitening products are needed.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and free radicals
contribute to melanogenesis and can accelerate skin
These authors contributed equally to this work.
DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700506 Chem. Biodiversity 2018, 15, e1700506 © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland
(1 of 13) e1700506