INTRODUCTIONGroup A rotavirus (RVA), a member of the genus Rotavirus within the family Reoviridae, is a leading pathogen causing severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. RVA gastroenteritis accounts for ∼215 000 deaths per year among children <5 years old. RVA comprises 11 gene segments of double‐stranded (ds) RNA, encoding six structural proteins (VP1‐VP4, VP6, and VP7) and six non‐structural proteins (NSP1‐NSP6). RVA possesses two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, which are implicated independently in neutralization, and define the G and P genotypes, respectively. To date, at least 32 G and 47 P genotypes have been assigned by the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG) (https://rega.kuleuven.be/cev/viralmetagenomics/virus-classification/rcwg). Among them, the 6 G (G1‐G4, G9, and G12) and 3 P (P, P, and P) genotypes are considered as common genotypes of human RVAs (HuRVAs). Recently, a whole genome‐based genotyping system was proposed based on the assignment of all the 11 genes, where Gx‐P[x]‐Ix‐Rx‐Cx‐Mx‐Ax‐Nx‐Tx‐Ex‐Hx designates the genotypes of the VP7‐VP4‐VP6‐VP1‐VP2‐VP3‐NSP1‐NSP2‐NSP3‐NSP4‐NSP5 genes. The majority of HuRVAs have genes similar in sequence to those of prototype human strain Wa (genogroup 1 genes) or DS‐1 (genogroup 2 genes). The Wa‐like strains are characterized by the following genotypes of backbone genes: I1‐R1‐C1‐M1‐A1‐N1‐T1‐E1‐H1, and tend to possess G/P genotypes G1P, G3P, G4P, G9P,
Journal of Medical Virology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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