INTRODUCTIONMore than 700 species of bacteria inhabit the oral cavity. Dental plaque is a biofilm comprised of multiple species of oral bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and supragingival plaque accumulation is a major cause of caries and periodontal disease (Filoche, Wong, & Sissons, ). It has been reported that the onset/progression of caries is correlated with sugar intake (frequency and interval) (Hujoel, ). Many studies have suggested that Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen in caries because it produces glucan, which promotes bacterial adhesion to the tooth surface, and excessive acid, which promotes tooth demineralisation, by metabolising a sucrose‐containing dietary source (Kleinberg, ; Paes Leme, Koo, Bellato, Bedi, & Cury, ; Takahashi & Nyvad, ). Therefore, various anticaries agents have been developed to reduce sucrose‐dependent plaque.However, the recent “An extended caries ecological hypothesis” of caries aetiology (Takahashi & Nyvad, ) argues against this predominant role of S. mutans. It posits that mineral changes on the surface of dental hard tissues are the result of increased acidity in the plaque environment due to homeostatic disturbances in the relative proportions of acidogenic/aciduric bacteria, such as Actinomyces and Streptococcus, including S. mutans. According to this theory, S. mutans and sucrose are not essential factors
Oral Diseases – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;
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