Cellular and molecular aspects of muscle growth, adaptation and ageing

Cellular and molecular aspects of muscle growth, adaptation and ageing Summary Although major advances have been made over the past few decades in prosthetic dentistry, deterioration in oral function and altered facial appearance are still common accompaniments of ageing. Molecular biology methods now allow us to understand these age‐related changes at the level of gene expression. Muscle loss as well as bone loss still present major problems, the magnitude of which increases as the age profile of our society changes. Both muscle and bone tissue respond to mechanical signals for which bone depends on muscle and for muscle, stretch has been shown to be important as it induces protein synthesis and an increase in girth as well as length of the muscle fibres. The latter involves the production of more sarcomeres in series so that the jaw muscles adapt to a new functional length following changes in vertical dimension of occlusion. It also determines the postural position of the lower jaw. In our investigations into the control of muscle mass we have recently cloned a growth factor which is expressed in exercised and/or overloaded muscles. This comes in two forms: an autocrine or local form and a paracrine or systemic form. Both growth factors influence muscle growth markedly and it is probable that the systemic type is also involved in maintenance of bone. The discovery of these growth factors provides the mechanisms by which mechanical signals are transduced into chemical signals that in turn regulate gene expression and protein synthesis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Gerodontology Wiley

Cellular and molecular aspects of muscle growth, adaptation and ageing

Gerodontology, Volume 15 (1) – Jul 1, 1998

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1998 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0734-0664
eISSN
1741-2358
DOI
10.1111/j.1741-2358.1998.00035.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Summary Although major advances have been made over the past few decades in prosthetic dentistry, deterioration in oral function and altered facial appearance are still common accompaniments of ageing. Molecular biology methods now allow us to understand these age‐related changes at the level of gene expression. Muscle loss as well as bone loss still present major problems, the magnitude of which increases as the age profile of our society changes. Both muscle and bone tissue respond to mechanical signals for which bone depends on muscle and for muscle, stretch has been shown to be important as it induces protein synthesis and an increase in girth as well as length of the muscle fibres. The latter involves the production of more sarcomeres in series so that the jaw muscles adapt to a new functional length following changes in vertical dimension of occlusion. It also determines the postural position of the lower jaw. In our investigations into the control of muscle mass we have recently cloned a growth factor which is expressed in exercised and/or overloaded muscles. This comes in two forms: an autocrine or local form and a paracrine or systemic form. Both growth factors influence muscle growth markedly and it is probable that the systemic type is also involved in maintenance of bone. The discovery of these growth factors provides the mechanisms by which mechanical signals are transduced into chemical signals that in turn regulate gene expression and protein synthesis.

Journal

GerodontologyWiley

Published: Jul 1, 1998

References

  • Physiological and structural changes in the cat's soleus muscle due to immobilization at different lengths by plaster casts
    Tabary, Tabary; Tabary, Tabary; Tardieu, Tardieu
  • Effect of inactivity and passive stretch on protein turnover in phasic and postural rat muscles
    Loughna, Loughna; Goldspink, Goldspink; Goldspink, Goldspink
  • Modulation of IGF mRNA abundance during stretch‐induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regression
    Czerwinski, Czerwinski; Martin, Martin; Bechtel, Bechtel
  • Muscle growth in response to mechanical stimuli
    Goldspink, Goldspink; Cox, Cox; Smith, Smith

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