Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans

Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans Cannabis is one of the most widely used drugs throughout the world. The psychoactive constituent of cannabis, δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (δ9‐THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. For many decades, the mechanism of action of cannabinoids, compounds which are structurally similar to δ9‐THC, was unknown. Tremendous progress has been made recently in characterizing cannabinoid receptors both centrally and peripherally and in studying the role of second messenger systems at the cellular level. Furthermore, an endogenous ligand, anandamide, for the cannabinoid receptor has been identified. Anandamide is a fatty‐acid derived compound that possesses pharmacological properties similar to δ9‐THC. The production of complex behavioral events by cannabinoids is probably mediated by specific cannabinoid receptors and interactions with other neurochemical systems. Cannabis also has great therapeutic potential and has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes. However, cannabinoid‐derived drugs on the market today lack specificity and produce many unpleasant side effects, thus limiting therapeutic usefulness. The advent of highly potent analogs and a specific antagonist may make possible the development of compounds that lack undesirable side effects. The advancements in the field of cannabinoid pharmacology should facilitate our understanding of the physiological role of endogenous cannabinoids. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Addiction Wiley

Cannabis: pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans

Addiction, Volume 91 (11) – Nov 1, 1996

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1996 Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
ISSN
0965-2140
eISSN
1360-0443
D.O.I.
10.1046/j.1360-0443.1996.911115852.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Cannabis is one of the most widely used drugs throughout the world. The psychoactive constituent of cannabis, δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (δ9‐THC), produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. For many decades, the mechanism of action of cannabinoids, compounds which are structurally similar to δ9‐THC, was unknown. Tremendous progress has been made recently in characterizing cannabinoid receptors both centrally and peripherally and in studying the role of second messenger systems at the cellular level. Furthermore, an endogenous ligand, anandamide, for the cannabinoid receptor has been identified. Anandamide is a fatty‐acid derived compound that possesses pharmacological properties similar to δ9‐THC. The production of complex behavioral events by cannabinoids is probably mediated by specific cannabinoid receptors and interactions with other neurochemical systems. Cannabis also has great therapeutic potential and has been used for centuries for medicinal purposes. However, cannabinoid‐derived drugs on the market today lack specificity and produce many unpleasant side effects, thus limiting therapeutic usefulness. The advent of highly potent analogs and a specific antagonist may make possible the development of compounds that lack undesirable side effects. The advancements in the field of cannabinoid pharmacology should facilitate our understanding of the physiological role of endogenous cannabinoids.

Journal

AddictionWiley

Published: Nov 1, 1996

References

  • Cannabinoid precipitated withdrawal by the selective cannabinoid receptor antagonist, SR 141716A
    Aceto, Aceto; Scates, Scates; Lowe, Lowe; Martin, Martin
  • Cannabinoid receptors and modulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in the rat brain
    Bidaut‐Russell, Bidaut‐Russell; Devane, Devane; Howlett, Howlett
  • Cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit Ca current in NG108‐15 neuroblastoma cells via a pertussis toxin‐sensitive mechanism
    Caulfield, Caulfield; Brown, Brown
  • Cannabinoids modulate potassium current in cultured hippocampal neurons
    Deadwyler, Deadwyler; Hampson, Hampson; Bennett, Bennett
  • Motivational effects of smoked marijuana: behavioral contingencies and low‐probability activities
    Folttn, Folttn; Fischman, Fischman; Brady, Brady
  • Psychopharmacological activity of the active constituents of hashish and some related cannabinoids
    Grunfeld, Grunfeld; Edery, Edery
  • Activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Girk1) by co‐expressed rat brain cannabinoid receptors in Xenopus oocytes
    Henry, Henry; Chavkin, Chavkin
  • Systemic or intrahippocampal cannabinoid administration impairs spatial memory in rats
    Lichtman, Lichtman; Dimen, Dimen; Martin, Martin
  • Effect of cannabis and certain of its constituents on pentobarbitone sleeping time and phenazone metabolism
    Paton, Paton; Pertwee, Pertwee
  • Structure‐activity relationships in cannabinoids
    Razdan, Razdan
  • Novel antagonist implicates the CB 1 cannabinoid receptor in the hypotensive action of anandamide
    Varga, Varga; Lake, Lake; Martin, Martin; Kunos, Kunos
  • Alcohol and other drug use and automobile safety: a survey of Boston‐area teen‐agers
    Wechsler, Wechsler; Rohman, Rohman; Kotch, Kotch; Idelson, Idelson

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