Butyl paraben (BP) has antimicrobial effects and is widely used as a preservative in cosmetics, foods, and pharmaceuticals. It is also absorbed into various tissues of the human body. It is known that BP is measurable in maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy, but the effects of BP on placental development, essential for maintaining normal pregnancy, are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effect of BP on the proliferation, apoptosis, and invasiveness of human trophoblast cells, using an HTR8/SVneo cell line. BP inhibited cell proliferation and induced both apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In addition, BP promoted the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, increased Ca2+ concentration in HTR8/SVneo cells, and induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. BP also inhibited the activation of PI3K/AKT pathways including AKT, ribosomal protein S6, P70 S6 kinase, and glycogen synthase kinase 3β. Furthermore, pretreatment of cells with LY294002 (an AKT inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) revealed that ERK1/2 activity is also involved in BP‐mediated signal transduction in HTR8/SVneo cells. We therefore suggest that exposing human trophoblast cells to BP diminishes normal physiological activity, leading to apoptosis and problems with early placental development.
Environmental Toxicology – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera