Balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO), or penile lichen sclerosus, is a progressive sclerosing inflammatory dermatosis of the glans penis and foreskin. It is associated with significant morbidity and may result in impaired urinary and sexual function. It was initially described by Stuhmer in 1928, named after its pathological features, and is considered the male equivalent of vulvar lichen sclerosis (LS).3,40 The etiology of BXO is uncertain; however, autoimmune disease, local trauma, and genetic and infective causes have been proposed. BXO occurs most commonly on the prepuce and glans penis. It is considered to have premalignant potential to transform into squamous neoplasia. This postulation rests on retrospective studies and parallels drawn with vulvar LS and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. Histologically, BXO and vulvar LS are considered the same disease.41 There is a paucity of evidence‐based guidelines to assist with appropriate follow‐up for patients with BXO.
International Journal of Dermatology – Wiley
Published: Jul 1, 2019
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