In 1993 we conducted a follow‐up study of the 1987 survey by Griffith et al. (1989) of 421 avian and mammalian translocation programs in North America, Australia, and New Zealand to reassess the programs’ status and the biological and methodological factors associated with success. Our survey response rate was 81%. Approximately 38% of usable programs in 1993 reported a change in outcome from 1987 (e.g., a translocated population was “declining” but now is “self‐sustaining”), but the difference between the overall success rates was not statistically significant (66% in 1987 and 67% in 1993). Since 1987, an increase was observed in the median number of animals translocated per program (31.5 to 50.5), median duration of releases (2 to 3 years), and proportion of programs releasing more than 30 animals (46% to 68%). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that release into the core of the historical range, good‐to‐excellent habitat quality, native game species, greater numbers of released animals, and an omnivorous diet were positively associated with translocation success. Moreover, our results indicate that translocated birds were less successful at establishing self‐sustaining populations than translocated mammals. Our findings, using comparable logistic analyses, generally corroborate the results of Grifftth et al. (1989). Variables not found to be significantly correlated with translocation success include species’ reproductive potential (number of offspring and first age of reproduction), number and duration of the releases, and source of the translocated animals (wild‐caught versus captive‐reared).
Conservation Biology – Wiley
Published: Aug 1, 1996
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