Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis prevalent among immunocompetent patients in Latin America. This study aimed to describe the frequency, demographics and clinical characteristics of central nervous system PCM (NPCM) and PCM in an endemic region, and the impact of human immunosuppression virus (HIV) co‐infection. This was a retrospective study of autopsy and biopsy reports from the Medical Pathology Section of the Hospital de Clinicas, UFPR, Curitiba, Southern Brazil, between 1951 and 2014. PCM was present in 0.1% of 378,323 cases examined, with 5.7% being NPCM. Infection was prevalent in working‐age men, agricultural workers and rural residents. Numbers of HIV autopsy cases increased over time, while those of PCM cases decreased. Prevalence of co‐infection of HIV/PCM and HIV/NPCM was 1.6%, and 0.4%, respectively. Adrenals were affected more frequently in the NPCM group compared with the PCM group. Mortality was higher on NPCM group. The clinical course of PCM in HIV patients resembles an acute/sub‐acute infection. Association of NPCM and HIV is rare, while diagnosis of NPCM is difficult, it should be considered a differential diagnosis in HIV patients who live in, or have visited, endemic areas and present with neurological symptoms.
Mycoses – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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