INTRODUCTIONSickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a genetic condition characterized by vaso‐occlusive episodes and infectious events (Kato, Hebbel, Steinberg, & Gladwin, ). This haemoglobinopathy is the result of a molecular modification causing the substitution of glutamic acid for valine in the beta chain of haemoglobin, thus leading to the production of modified haemoglobin (Hb S) (Kato et al., ; Steinberg, ). In homozygotes, the presence of Hb S instead of the normal haemoglobin (Hb A) is genetically inherited from both parents and characterizes SCA (Steinberg, ). Another condition considered asymptomatic and associated with the presence of Hb S is sickle cell trait (SCT); this condition is caused by heterozygous inheritance in which an individual receives the recessive gene for Hb S from one parent and a dominant gene for Hb A from the other (Goldsmith et al., ; Steinberg, ; Tsaras et al., ).In hypoxic conditions, biochemical changes in the Hb molecule trigger the formation of polymers that lead to a change in the biconcave discoid configuration of red blood cells, thus causing a shape similar to a sickle (Ferreira et al., ; Kato et al., ). Consequently, sickled cells become less flexible and more adherent to the vascular endothelium, blocking capillaries and restricting blood
Oral Diseases – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ;
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