Antiviral Activity of Faramea hyacinthina and Faramea truncata
Leaves on Dengue Virus Type-2 and Their Major Compounds
Rodolfo S. Barboza,
Ligia M. M. Valente,*
omulo L. S. Neris,
Iris P. Guimar
Instituto de Qu
ımica, Centro de Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Athos da Silveira Ramos 149,
Bl. A, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, e-mail: email@example.com
Instituto de Microbiologia Paulo G
oes, Centro de Ci
encias da Sa
ude, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av.
Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Bl. I, 21941-902 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Bot
anico do Rio de Janeiro, R. Jardim Bot
anico 1008, 22470-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ,
The defatted fractions of the Faramea hyacinthina and F. truncata (Rubiaceae) leaf MeOH extracts showed in vitro
non-cytotoxic and anti-dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) activity in human hepatocarcinoma cell lineage (HepG2).
Submitting these fractions to the developed RP-SPE method allowed isolating the antiviral ﬂavanone (2S)-
-glucopyranoside (1) from both species and yielded less active sub-
fractions. The new diastereoisomeric epimer pair (2S) + (2R) of 5,3
-glucopyranoside (2a/2b) from F. hyacinthina; the known narigenin-7-O-b-
glucopyranoside (3) from both species; rutin (4) and quercetin-4
-O-glucopyranosyl-3-O-rutinoside (5) from
F. hyacinthina, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (6), erythroxyloside A (7) and asperuloside (8) from F. truncata have
been isolated from these sub-fractions. Compounds 4 – 8 are reported for the ﬁrst time in Faramea spp.
Keywords: Faramea hyacinthina, Faramea truncata, Rubiaceae, anti-dengue activity, SPE.
Dengue virus infection is a neglected disease preva-
lent in most tropical and subtropical areas and its inci-
dence has dramatically increased in the last
In Brazil, it is placed among one of the
most serious public health issues with about 1.5 mil-
lion cases in 2016.
Currently there is no antiviral
drug indicated for the routine treatment of dengue
patients. Thus, the discovery of drugs that can exert
antiviral activity against dengue virus (DENV), without
being toxic to the host cell and thus mitigating the
symptoms, is highly desirable.
Natural products are one of the most important
sources in the development of new drugs.
compounds are often present in small quantities in
complex matrices, and so the ability to purify large
amounts of these substances for further studies or
applications is limited. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a
technique that has been increasingly used in numer-
ous ﬁelds due to its simplicity, low-cost, and ease of
automation. SPE permits the efﬁcient separation, con-
centration, and/or pre-puriﬁcation of analytes.
[4 – 6]
The majority of the parameters governing the process-
ing steps in SPE can be estimated from HPLC mea-
surements or by using its theoretical principles.
The genus Faramea A
. (Rubiaceae) comprises
ca. 200 species of shrubs, sub-shrubs or trees distributed
throughout the Neotropics from Mexico to northern
Argentina with 123 species occurring in Brazil.
the diversity of the species, few reports can be found on
their chemical composition and pharmacological poten-
[8 – 10]
The species Faramea hyacinthina M
in Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay
while F. truncata
. is endemic in Brazil. To the best of our
knowledge, no chemical or pharmacological studies
have been reported on them.
As part of an ongoing search for potential anti-
dengue agents, the antiviral and immunomodulatory
activities of the species Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae)
on human monocytes infected with DENV serotype 2
(DENV-2) have been reported.
Clinical and exper-
imental evidences point out that hepatocytes are tar-
get for DENV replication and are involved in the
pathogenesis during infection.
[14 – 16]
cyte-derived cell lines have been used as targets for
DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201700393 Chem. Biodiversity 2018, 15, e1700393 © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland
(1 of 10) e1700393