Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from 233 horses with musculoskeletal infection during 1979–1989

Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from 233 horses with musculoskeletal infection... Summary Bacterial culture and susceptibility results were analysed from 233 horses with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis that developed after fracture repair. Antibiotics were deemed highly effective, effective or ineffective if ≤85%, 70–84.9% or <70% of the isolates were susceptible respectively. In total, 424 bacterial types were isolated; 386 were aerobic or facultative and 38 were anaerobic. Enterobacteriaceae (28.8%) were the most common bacterial group isolated, followed by non‐beta‐haemolytic streptococci (13.0%), coagulase‐positive staphylococci (11.8%), beta‐haemolytic streptococci (9.4%), and coagulase‐negative staphylococci (73%). The remainder of the organisms were other Gram‐negative (15.8%), other Gram‐positive (2.3%) and miscellaneous (2.6%) bacteria. Penicillin and ampicillin were highly effective against beta‐haemolytic streptococci, but were ineffective against other bacteria. Ampicillin was no more effective than penicillin against most bacteria. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against the wide range of bacteria isolated in this study. Amikacin was highly effective against coagulase‐positive staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas and was effective against coagulase‐negative staphylococci and Actinobacillus. Gentamycin was not highly effective against any bacterial group; but was effective against coagulase‐positive and negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Actinobacillus. Kanamycin was ineffective against all bacteria with the exception of Actinobacillus. Cephalothin was highly effective against beta‐haemolytic streptococci, coagulase‐positive staphylococci and Actinobacillus and was effective against coagulase‐negative staphylococci. Cephalothin is a very useful antibiotic for Gram‐positive organisms, especially staphylococci, which are an important cause of iatrogenic infections. Trimethroprim‐sulphonamides were highly effective against Actinobacillus and were effective against coagulase‐positive staphylococci, beta‐haemolytic streptococci, non‐beta‐haemolytic streptococci and Rhodococcus equi. Due to the narrow spectrum of activity of trimethoprim‐sulphonamides against the common pathogenic organisms, these drugs should be used only after culture and susceptibility results are known. Erythromycin was highly effective against coagulase‐positive staphylococci, beta‐haemolytic streptococci and Rhodococcus equi and was effective against coagulase‐negative staphylococci. Chloramphenicol was effective against a wide range of organisms, but it cannot be recommended because of the human health hazard associated with handling this drug. Other less commonly used antibiotics were effective against some types of bacteria. The combination of a cephalosporin and amikacin provides the best coverage against the bacteria isolated in this study. These are the antibiotics that should be considered when treating horses with musculoskeletal infection before culture and susceptibility results are known. However, these drugs are not recommended for prophylaxis in routine elective orthopaedic surgery. Many factors affect the selection of an antibiotic, including costs, ease of administration, the source of the infection, and the location of the infection. These factors, considered with the results of this study, should assist clinicians in making rational decisions regarding antibiotic therapy for horses with musculoskeletal sepsis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Equine Veterinary Journal Wiley

Antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from 233 horses with musculoskeletal infection during 1979–1989

Loading next page...
 
/lp/wiley/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-bacterial-isolates-from-233-horses-fxYz2kalqa
Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
© 1992 EVJ Ltd
ISSN
0425-1644
eISSN
2042-3306
DOI
10.1111/j.2042-3306.1992.tb02875.x
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Summary Bacterial culture and susceptibility results were analysed from 233 horses with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis or osteomyelitis that developed after fracture repair. Antibiotics were deemed highly effective, effective or ineffective if ≤85%, 70–84.9% or <70% of the isolates were susceptible respectively. In total, 424 bacterial types were isolated; 386 were aerobic or facultative and 38 were anaerobic. Enterobacteriaceae (28.8%) were the most common bacterial group isolated, followed by non‐beta‐haemolytic streptococci (13.0%), coagulase‐positive staphylococci (11.8%), beta‐haemolytic streptococci (9.4%), and coagulase‐negative staphylococci (73%). The remainder of the organisms were other Gram‐negative (15.8%), other Gram‐positive (2.3%) and miscellaneous (2.6%) bacteria. Penicillin and ampicillin were highly effective against beta‐haemolytic streptococci, but were ineffective against other bacteria. Ampicillin was no more effective than penicillin against most bacteria. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic against the wide range of bacteria isolated in this study. Amikacin was highly effective against coagulase‐positive staphylococci, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas and was effective against coagulase‐negative staphylococci and Actinobacillus. Gentamycin was not highly effective against any bacterial group; but was effective against coagulase‐positive and negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Actinobacillus. Kanamycin was ineffective against all bacteria with the exception of Actinobacillus. Cephalothin was highly effective against beta‐haemolytic streptococci, coagulase‐positive staphylococci and Actinobacillus and was effective against coagulase‐negative staphylococci. Cephalothin is a very useful antibiotic for Gram‐positive organisms, especially staphylococci, which are an important cause of iatrogenic infections. Trimethroprim‐sulphonamides were highly effective against Actinobacillus and were effective against coagulase‐positive staphylococci, beta‐haemolytic streptococci, non‐beta‐haemolytic streptococci and Rhodococcus equi. Due to the narrow spectrum of activity of trimethoprim‐sulphonamides against the common pathogenic organisms, these drugs should be used only after culture and susceptibility results are known. Erythromycin was highly effective against coagulase‐positive staphylococci, beta‐haemolytic streptococci and Rhodococcus equi and was effective against coagulase‐negative staphylococci. Chloramphenicol was effective against a wide range of organisms, but it cannot be recommended because of the human health hazard associated with handling this drug. Other less commonly used antibiotics were effective against some types of bacteria. The combination of a cephalosporin and amikacin provides the best coverage against the bacteria isolated in this study. These are the antibiotics that should be considered when treating horses with musculoskeletal infection before culture and susceptibility results are known. However, these drugs are not recommended for prophylaxis in routine elective orthopaedic surgery. Many factors affect the selection of an antibiotic, including costs, ease of administration, the source of the infection, and the location of the infection. These factors, considered with the results of this study, should assist clinicians in making rational decisions regarding antibiotic therapy for horses with musculoskeletal sepsis.

Journal

Equine Veterinary JournalWiley

Published: Nov 1, 1992

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off