and JOHN E. HAY University of Canterbury CANADA ALASKA AND yield, on the average, 35 cm of run-off from a total land surface exceeding 12 million square kilometres. The total discharge to the surrounding oceans amounts to 144 thousand cubic metres a second, or an annual total of about 4,540 billion ( l o 9 ) cubic metres. For comparison, the discharge from the Soviet Union is 4,710 billion cubic metres, off a land surface of 23 million square kilometres (Bochkov, Chebotarev, and Voskresensky ( 1970). Sanderson and Phillips (1967) report that Canada alone provides 7 per cent of the worldâs total run-off. Precise estimates are hard to obtain, but the mean annual precipitation probably exceeds 60 cm, not far from double the run-off. The difference between precipitation and run-off is, of course, the annual evapotranspiration from the continental surface. There may be small interannual changes in the net storage of water in lakes, streams, soil, and groundwater; but on a climatological basis these must for all practical purposes vanish. Uncertainty as to the real magnitude of these exchanges persists. The streamgauging network has only recently been pushed into the more remote areas of the Canadian mainland. Much
The Canadian Geographer/Le Geographe Canadien – Wiley
Published: Jun 1, 1971
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