INTRODUCTIONMany biomarkers have always been implicated in the diagnosis of hepatic injury especially liver enzymes ]alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)[. These markers are always documented to vary and fluctuate in different liver diseases. When liver injury occurs, ALT is released from injured liver cells and causes a significant elevation in serum ALT activity. ALT also exists in muscles, adipose tissues, intestines, colon, prostate, and brain; however, the concentration of ALT in these organs is much lower than the liver. Serum ALT testing is readily available, inexpensive, and routinely used to assess liver function in clinical practice. There are many causes that can lead to increased serum ALT activity. Viral hepatitis like hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are among the leading causes of ALT elevation whether in cases of acute or chronic viral hepatitis. Other common causes include: steatohepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, hemochromatosis, excessive alcohol intake besides long list of drugs and chemicals and metabolic covariates. Chronic ALT elevation was also found in several metabolic and non‐hepatic disorders, such as glucose intolerance, central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, celiac disease, and muscle injury. Average upper limits of normal (ULN) for ALT were
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ;
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