Recent progress in advanced nanostructures synthesized from biomass resources for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is reviewed. The ORR plays a significant role in the performance of numerous energy‐conversion devices, including low‐temperature hydrogen and alcohol fuel cells, microbial fuel cells, as well as metal–air batteries. The viability of such fuel cells is strongly related to the cost of the electrodes, especially the cathodic ORR electrocatalyst. Hence, inexpensive and abundant plant and animal biomass have become attractive options to obtain electrocatalysts upon conversion into active carbon. Bioresource selection and processing criteria are discussed in light of their influence on the physicochemical properties of the ORR nanostructures. The resulting electrocatalytic activity and durability are introduced and compared to those from conventional Pt/C‐based electrocatalysts. These ORR catalysts are also active for oxygen or hydrogen evolution reactions.
Advanced Materials – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ;
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