A novel neuronal messenger molecule in brain: The free radical, nitric oxide

A novel neuronal messenger molecule in brain: The free radical, nitric oxide Understanding of the organization and function of a newly identified neuronal messenger molecule, nitric oxide, has progressed rapidly. Nitric oxide synthase has been purified and molecularly cloned from brain. Its localization is exclusively neuronal and endothelial. The catalytic activity of nitric oxide synthase accounts for the NADPH diaphorase staining of neurons that are uniquely resistant ot toxic insults and neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide has diverse functions. In platelets it inhibits their aggregation, in macrophages it mediates cytotoxicity, and in blood vessels it acts as a vasodilator. In the nervous system nitric oxide may be the retrograde transmitter in long‐term potentiation. It is the “neurotransmitter” of cerebral vasodilator nerves and the inhibitory “neurotransmitter” of the motor neurons of the intestines. Nitric oxide in situations of excessive production may function as neurotoxin, suggesting a role for nitric oxide in neurodegenerative disorders. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Annals of Neurology Wiley

A novel neuronal messenger molecule in brain: The free radical, nitric oxide

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 1992 The American Neurological Association
ISSN
0364-5134
eISSN
1531-8249
DOI
10.1002/ana.410320302
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Understanding of the organization and function of a newly identified neuronal messenger molecule, nitric oxide, has progressed rapidly. Nitric oxide synthase has been purified and molecularly cloned from brain. Its localization is exclusively neuronal and endothelial. The catalytic activity of nitric oxide synthase accounts for the NADPH diaphorase staining of neurons that are uniquely resistant ot toxic insults and neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide has diverse functions. In platelets it inhibits their aggregation, in macrophages it mediates cytotoxicity, and in blood vessels it acts as a vasodilator. In the nervous system nitric oxide may be the retrograde transmitter in long‐term potentiation. It is the “neurotransmitter” of cerebral vasodilator nerves and the inhibitory “neurotransmitter” of the motor neurons of the intestines. Nitric oxide in situations of excessive production may function as neurotoxin, suggesting a role for nitric oxide in neurodegenerative disorders.

Journal

Annals of NeurologyWiley

Published: Sep 1, 1992

References

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