ABBREVIATIONSACVRL1/ALK1activin receptor‐like kinaseAPC(s)antigen‐presenting cell(s)AVM(s)arteriovenous malformation(s)DC(s)dendritic cell(s)ENGendoglinHHThereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasiaAlloimmunization to non‐ABO red blood cell (RBC) antigens is one of the most common complications of repeated RBC transfusions. Alloimmunization rates are approximately 1% to 3% in general hospital–based patients and can reach up to 50% in transfusion‐dependent patients such as patients with sickle cell disease. Non‐ABO RBC alloantibodies increase the risk of immediate and delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions, which are one of the leading causes of transfusion‐related mortality reported to the Food and Drug Administration. Patients with alloantibodies are also more likely to experience delays in transfusions because the numbers of compatible RBCs for transfusions are limited; such delays can also lead to complications resulting in morbidity and mortality. In addition, maternal alloantibodies in the setting of pregnancy may lead to severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Because of its frequency and associated clinical complications, numerous studies of alloimmunization have been undertaken to discover underlying causes that drive alloantibody development. To date, alloimmunization has been associated with multiple risk factors including transfusion load, age, sex, inflammatory status, immunogenicity of RBC antigens, RBC unit processing, and modifications—all of these potentially affect alloimmunization. However, the association between alloimmunization and specific disease
Transfusion – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
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