A model of risk for major depression: Effects of life stress and cognitive style vary by age

A model of risk for major depression: Effects of life stress and cognitive style vary by age Empirical studies increasingly attribute risk for depression to adverse life events, cognitive style, and possibly to the interaction between cognitive style and event type. We present an evidence‐based model, developed with independent samples of adults and elderly adults, indicating that risk for major depression associated with these factors varies with age. According to the model, adverse events and need for control, the cognitive style that is a key feature of Beck's concept of autonomy, are significant risk factors for depression in younger adults but not in elderly adults. The cognitive style of sociotropy, characterized by a high need for relatedness and concern about disapproval, is a stable risk factor, independent of age, in posing a risk for depression. The effects of the interactions of adverse event type (achievement events and interpersonal events) and cognitive style in predicting depression each appear to vary with age, expanding prior work, which suggests that adverse events affecting one's personal vulnerability are likely to precipitate depression. Age‐specific approaches to reducing risk for major depression are clinically important, and the model presented here suggests that the use of an age‐specific perspective would advance research in stress‐diathesis models for risk of depression. Depression and Anxiety 17:26–33, 2003. © 2003 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Depression and Anxiety Wiley

A model of risk for major depression: Effects of life stress and cognitive style vary by age

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Publisher
Wiley
Copyright
Copyright © 2003 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
ISSN
1091-4269
eISSN
1520-6394
DOI
10.1002/da.10081
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Empirical studies increasingly attribute risk for depression to adverse life events, cognitive style, and possibly to the interaction between cognitive style and event type. We present an evidence‐based model, developed with independent samples of adults and elderly adults, indicating that risk for major depression associated with these factors varies with age. According to the model, adverse events and need for control, the cognitive style that is a key feature of Beck's concept of autonomy, are significant risk factors for depression in younger adults but not in elderly adults. The cognitive style of sociotropy, characterized by a high need for relatedness and concern about disapproval, is a stable risk factor, independent of age, in posing a risk for depression. The effects of the interactions of adverse event type (achievement events and interpersonal events) and cognitive style in predicting depression each appear to vary with age, expanding prior work, which suggests that adverse events affecting one's personal vulnerability are likely to precipitate depression. Age‐specific approaches to reducing risk for major depression are clinically important, and the model presented here suggests that the use of an age‐specific perspective would advance research in stress‐diathesis models for risk of depression. Depression and Anxiety 17:26–33, 2003. © 2003 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

Journal

Depression and AnxietyWiley

Published: Jan 1, 2003

References

  • Hopelessness theory of depression: tests of the symptom component
    Alloy, Alloy; Clements, Clements
  • Psychometric characteristics of revised sociotropy and autonomy scales in college students
    Clark, Clark; Steer, Steer; Beck, Beck; Ross, Ross
  • Sociotropy, autonomy, and self‐discrepancy: Status in depressed, remitted depressed, and control participants
    Fairbrother, Fairbrother; Moretti, Moretti
  • Cognitive therapy and the prevention of depression
    Hollon, Hollon; DeRubeis, DeRubeis; Seligman, Seligman
  • The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI‐SF)
    Kessler, Kessler; Andrews, Andrews; Mroczek, Mroczek; Ustan, Ustan; Wittchen, Wittchen
  • Cognitive‐personality characteristics as direct predictors of unipolar major depression
    Mazure, Mazure; Raghavan, Raghavan; Maciejewski, Maciejewski; Jacobs, Jacobs; Bruce, Bruce

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