IntroductionIn the United States, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has tripled over the last two decades, while the 5‐year survival of patients with HCC has remained largely unchanged at <12% (El‐Serag, ). Patients with early stage HCC have multiple treatment options and the 5‐year survival for treated patients exceeds 60% (Bruix and Sherman, ). Five‐year survival for HCC cases that are diagnosed at a later (symptomatic) stage is between 0 and 10%. Early detection of HCC through surveillance is critical to reducing mortality.The target population for HCC surveillance are those patients with cirrhosis, since 80–90% of HCC cases occur in patients with cirrhosis. Six‐month ultrasonography is recommended (Bruix and Sherman, ), however, there is disagreement over the benefit of surveillance. In the United States, the majority of surveillance ultrasounds are performed at local hospitals with variable quality because ultrasonography is operator dependent, not sensitive in detecting early lesions and difficult to perform in obese patients. Serum α‐Fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic HCC biomarker widely used to complement ultrasonography. The reported sensitivity for AFP varies between 41 and 100% and specificity between 70 and 95% in both diagnostic and screening settings and across a range of study designs (Gebo
Biometrics – Wiley
Published: Jan 1, 2018
Keywords: ; ; ; ;
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera