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Unified Model of Global Wellbeing as Index of Spirituality and Socio-Economic Development: The Islamic Economic Approach

Unified Model of Global Wellbeing as Index of Spirituality and Socio-Economic Development: The... Journal of Social Sciences Original Research Paper Unified Model of Global Wellbeing as Index of Spirituality and Socio-Economic Development: The Islamic Economic Approach Masudul Alam Choudhury Faculty of Business Administration, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Bangladesh Article history Abstract: The paper firstly establishes the ontological methodology Received: 24-09-2019 according to the qu’anic monotheistic law, Tawhid and its unitary Revised: 09-01-2020 relationship in the world-system of ‘everything’. Tawhid as the primal Accepted: 07-04-2020 ontological law in the Qur’an is differently poised to Shari’ah as the latter’ sectarian nature that evolved over time. Consequently, the concept of Email: [email protected] spirituality derived from the Tawhidi law is explained in terms of the precept of oneness between the good things of life while avoiding the unwanted ones. The imminent methodological consequences of Tawhid as law on the topic of spirituality and organization are explained by an analytical model that is empirically viable. Furthermore, the other examples are regarding the development of the wellbeing index to express the ontological role of Tawhidi unity of knowledge. The place of Islamic economics is thereby explained with the imminent Tawehidi ontological premise. Keywords: Tawhid as Monotheistic Oneness, Qur’an, Shari’ah, Ontology and World-System, Wellbeing, Spirituality rights, which are considered as a part of the Introduction transcendental law of monotheistic oneness and its The understanding of the foundational ontological relationship with the unified world-system (Ω). law in Islam, namely the monotheistic oneness of God Contrary to Tawhid as the qur’anic divine law of (termed Tawhid) as one that meets universal wellbeing oneness, fiqh as juristic interpretation to justice in almost all in the global sense, rather than being confined to areas of human endeavour, has historically served the Muslims alone, has been grossly ignored. Academic interests of sects, as well as mainly financial and legal research concerning the so-called Islamic Law, the groups among Muslims. Thus the exegesis of qur’anic law Shari’ah and the three elements of its inner configuration (also wisely directed by the Sunnah- a carrier of the (namely, the Qur’an, Prophetic practice called the qur’anic law to the generalized and particular cases of the Sunnah and human juristic interpretation and practice issues and problems under study) has been marred by known as fiqh) have been intertwined in an incoherent wishful human interpretations. Examples of such cases are 1 2 way. In early days of Islam , Shari’ah scholars found in the contrariness of interpretations in the Shari’ah identified five main securities to mankind around which among different Muslim sects, for example in broader the spiritual teaching of Islam leads to prosperity; faith sense, Sunni and Shia. To the extent, the principal Sunni (deen), life, Intellect, lineage or posterity and property sects further consist of the Hanafi, Shafei, Hanbali schools of thought which bring complex horizontal and vertical The period starts from the time of the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 divisions to the communities in Muslim majority countries. C.E.) including the age of the Orthodox Caliphate (632-661 C.E.), the The consequences that ensue as the universal law of noble companions and the succeeding generations till the Umayyad and Tawhid have been lost. The principle law of the Qur’an Abbasid Eras (661-1258) as one that is applicable to Muslims and non-Muslims Shari`ah is considered as the sacred way to understand the law of Islamic monotheism in Islam, Tawhid in its applied form. It is derived alike in the ontological sense of systemic oneness and is from the Quran, the Sunnah (the sayings and deeds of the Prophet uniquely relevant to the realms of the animate and the Muhammad during his life time), Ijma’ (consensus), Qiyas (reasoning cosmological world-systems through abstraction and by analogy) and Maslaha (consideration of the public good or common application, needs to be understood. This central law of need). See Qur’an (45:18) © 2020 Masudul Alam Choudhury. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 3.0 license. Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 monotheism, referred to as Tawhid in the Qur’an, has (Wilson, 1998; Prigogine, 1980) is a physical model as been replaced with a distorted picture of what is now prototype of unity of knowledge. The algorithmic but not defined as the Shari’ah- a product of misinterpretations the substantive meaning of Tawhidi methodology of by opportunist clerical and theological differences. A unity of knowledge is formally represented by the great divide thus exists between the definitions of consilience model. Yet more significantly, using these Tawhid and Shari’ah, as a result of the vagaries of analytical models, the Tawhidi methodological human desire, geo-political, ethno-religious and worldview of pervasive unity of knowledge with commercial interests. moral induction gives the scheme and order of all An example in this regard is the legitimation of the unified developmental entities. These are not Shari’ah commercial instruments as contracts (‘aqd’), comprehended either by the idea of biological contrary to the unified understanding of financing consilience or the social Shari’ah approach. instruments under the Tawhidi methodology, one which What the Shari’ah approach has tried to formulate integrates and simulates possibilities across unifying are humanly self-assigned coefficient values to systems of thought -- transdisciplinarity. Furthermore, variables of the development index. A deconstruction Shari’ah has remained in its narrow pale of legal of the aggregate index of wellbeing governed by the contracts relating to worldly affairs [Ω→S: (Ω,S)], in purpose and objective of the Shari’ah termed as maqasid as-Shari’ah, has been tried but the limits of contrast to a greater domain- which studies worldly matters as well as the abstractions and evidences of deconstruction face the problem of differentiated categories in the indexes, indicators and variables and universal categories in general (e.g., cosmological entities) (Choudhury, 2015). their relations. Thereby, the exogenously assigned numerical values of the coefficients makes the whole This paper attempts to tackle this complex indexing exercise to be a personated design in existing subdivisional phenomena among human society and practices rather than a natural objective criterion introduces the Tawhidi methodological worldview (Davies and Brady, 2015). (monotheism) unified model of ontological law of unity Pertinent to such problems is the structure of the of knowledge invoked by the Qur’an and the Sunnah. development index. Most often linear forms are used but These together enhance spirituality and material without a basis of such derivations (Mustafa and Taib, prosperity3. Thereby, no standardization and harmonization 2016; Syed and Hasan, 2015). At the end, the Shari’ah has been determined by a mistaken approach to the development indices have remained void of formulating identification of what truly is the primal ontological Islamic the endogenous embedding of moral and ethical values law. Is it the law of the Shari’ah or the universal law of of the Qur’anic genre in the representative variables of primal ontological origin of Tawhid in the Qur’an, the First the material goods, services and cognition by ways of Law? Tawhid i.e. the Qur’an is transmitted by the authentic abstraction and applications. Sunnah into the knowledge embedded in everything of the The structure of the rest of the paper is as follows. In the universal world-system. Indeed, here is what Buchman next section we develop a unified Tawhidi methodological (1998, p. xviii)) writes regarding the prevalence of the worldview model which turns into substantiation of the Tawhidi worldview in the medieval Islamic age being wellbeing function as the groundwork for the development different from those who have failed to understand the res of wellbeing universal index. In section 3, Islamic cogitans and res extensa of the Tawhidi weltanschauung: spirituality indexation process is presented to demonstrate “... It (the book, Ghazali’s Niche of Lights) may be helpful to elucidate the general ‘Tawhid-centered worldview of its unique and universal application in the area of spiritual twelfth-century Islam. People today-Muslims and non- wellbeing inline with the Millenium Development Index Muslims alike-usually hold drastically different (MDI). The parametric and nonparametric data meshing assumptions on the nature of existence than those held by process is proposed which establishes causality by al-Ghazali and most of his contemporaries”. forward and backward stochastic linkages established On the topic of development indexing, the Shari’ah by the ontological law of unity of knowledge using focuses ‘Uqud’, separable legal contracts. The Islamic time series, cross-sectional and/or survey data to attempts to formulate such development indexing have conduct empirical work. The implication of meso- missed the treatment of the systemic relational organism economics is thus invoked. The final section contains that is essential to be derived from the Tawhidi unity of some concluding remarks. knowledge. The consilience of being and becoming The Unified Tawhidi Welbeing Model Qur’an (59: 7): “So that it (wealth) may not (make) a circuit between Tawhidi Based Wellbeing Indicators the rich among you”, Qur’an (53: 1-3): “By the star when it descends, your companion This section presents the topological foundation of [Muhammad] has not strayed, nor has he erred, Nor does he speak the unified model which is free from ethno-religiousity, from [his own] inclination.” 64 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 race, colour, sects and soci-economic division. To begin, nature of Tawhidi unity of knowledge. Thereby, we refer to Fig. 1 which provides the difference in knowledge-flows ‘θ’ induces all functional methodological sense between the primal ontological law transformations in their various monotonic relations. of Tawhidi unity of knowledge and the fiqi (jurisprudential) Thus the moral embedding of the world-system is approach of the Shari’ah. The details of the two denoted by {X(θ)}. The world-system that is spanned by methodologies are explained in respect of the generality of the embedding of knowledge-flows arising from the the endogenous moral embedding in representative ontology of unity of knowledge and its epistemological variables for Tawhid. On the other hand, there is the processes out of discourse and interpretation is denoted impossibility of this endogenous embedding by Shari’ah as by {θ,X(θ)} and its family of knowledge-induced conveyed by its exogenous treatment of moral values. embedding as moral transformations of the generality The Tawhidi methodological worldview and particulars of the world-system. The coterminous (monotheism) as the primal ontological law of unity of determination of knowledge from the primal ontology knowledge invokes the Qur’an and the Sunnah in their of Tawhidi unity of knowledge and its purest form as supercardinal topology of fullness of epistemological derivation of knowledge-flows and knowledge in the open and unbounded domain of Ω knowledge-induced world-system completes the (Qur’an) at the point 1 in Fig. 1. Elements of Ω as such construction of the totality of the moral and ethicized a complete topology of knowledge is mapped by ‘S’ world-system and its particulars. Note that this event (Sunnah as teaching of the Prophet Muhammad) to occurs at the point 3 of Fig. 1. generate knowledge-flows of the generality and The evaluation of the morally constructed world- particulars of issues and problems under study in system in terms of the epistemological consequences of diverse world-systems. Because ‘S’ is inextricably Tawhidi ontology of unity of knowledge is carried out linked with Ω as a well-defined topological mapping to by the objective criterion of the generalized world- derive as, [Ω→ : (Ω,S)]. Point 2 in Fig. 1 shows the system and its particulars. This objective criterion is the derivation of interpretive knowledge. Thereby firstly, wellbeing function denoted by W(θ,X(θ)). It is referred {θ*} is derived from Ω by the primal ontological to in Islamic terminology as maslaha. Along with the function of (Ω,S). possibility of multiple transformations of {θ,X(θ)} there We thereby write, (Ω,S) → {θ*}. Furthermore, from also follow the family of monotonic positive {θ*} by discourse concerning the issues and problems transformations denoted by {W(θ,X(θ))}. under construction the participants of this interactive At the point 3 of Fig. 1, {W(θ,X(θ))} is evaluated process arrive at consensus (integration) to determine a in response to the features of the Tawhidi ontological given station of unification of knowledge of the and epistemological properties. That is {(θ,X(θ))} are interpretive derivation from (Ω,S) → {θ*}. This worldly characterised by three discursive processes; derivation of unity of knowledge for induction in the interaction (I), integration (I) and evolutionary (E) - unity of the generality and particulars of the world- (IIE)-learning of the knowledge derivation and system under study is denoted by {θ} as knowledge- knowledge-flows in unity of knowledge. Such flows from the primal ontological domain. We thereby processes occur between agents, agencies and write, (Ω,S) →{θ*)→{θ}, for ∀ tuple {θ*,θ}∈(Ω,S) organisms. All these are explained in terms of the along with monotonically positive relational knowledge-induced symbiotic variables. The transformations of {θ*,θ}. The derivation of such consequential organic unity of knowledge between diversity of {θ*,θ} from the primal ontology of super such variables in abstraction and empirical cardinal topology Ω by way of the topological mapping applications is explained in a system of inter-causal ‘S’ (Maddox, 1970; Rucker, 1982), is the epistemology relations. The Qur’an refers to such evolutionary that is induced as moral organism in the variables and learning dynamics as re-origination (khalq in-jadid) their relations representing the generality and specifics of through the participative and complementary organically the issues and problems under study. unified processes of ‘pairing’ (Azwajaha Kullaha). Thereby, the representative variables, {X(θ)} are simultaneously and continuously determined along with Qur’an (30:11): “It is God Who begins (the process of) creation; then the continuity of {θ} as derived knowledge-flows of the repeats it; then shall you be brought back to Him.” Qur’an (36:36): “Glory to God, Who created in pairs all things that the Qur’an (4:59): “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of messenger and those in authority among you. and if you disagree over which they have no knowledge.” anything, refer it to Allah and the messenger, if you should believe in Qur’an (51:49): “And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye Allah and the last day. that is the best [way] and best in result.” may receive instructions.” 65 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 1 2 3 Formalism and Ontology of Tawhidi Tawhidi construction Tawhidi Law Epistemology Phenomenology Continuity recall (Ω,S) and continuum (Ω,S) {θ*)→{θ}→{X(θ)} : {θ,X(θ);t(θ)}, intertemporal Eval.W(X(θ);t(θ)) [conceptual wellbeing, aslaha] subject to, circular causation (Qur’anic pairing) X (θ) = f (X (θ),θ); (i ≠ j) = 1,2,…n i i j θ = F(X(θ);t(θ)) [ordinal evaluation of wellbeing] In multiple wellbeing functions as in sustainability and development: Eval. Π W (X (θ);t(θ)) s s s s.t. inter-systemic circular causation relations, X (θ) = f (X (θ),θ) i,i s s,j [1] Fig. 1: Tawhidi methodological worldview contrasted with Shari’ah in practice. By far the larger part of of those supposedly Shari’ah laws is an outcome of the deductions and the subjective reasoning of the great fuquha of our past-deductions and conclusions, to be sure, conscientously based on the context of the Two Sources, but none the less subjective in the sense that they were determined by each faqih’s individual approach to and individual interpretation of problems not laid down [2] unequivocally in terms of the law in either of those Two Sources, the Qur’an and Sunnah. “... No subjective deduction, interpretation or conclusion touching upon any problems of law arrived at by means of the ijtihad (individual reasoning) of any, even the greatest, Muslim scholar can even be binding on the community.” The point 3 of Fig. 1 thus summarizes the functional Simulation is a process estimation with changes in forms of the design of objectivity of the ontologically the coefficients, to increase the possibility of ethically unified knowledge-embedded world-system in terms of reconstructed inter-variable causal relations, rising from the circular causation relations as formalized. Since unity weaker and negative coefficients into stronger and of knowledge as complementary participation exists positive ones. This transformation of the relations would everywhere and in everything (Barrow, 1991), there is imply enhanced levels of participative complementarities likewise the well-defined relationship of knowledge as between the variables representing the moral action of monotonic positive derivation of wellbeing measured in life (life-fullfilment needs). The wellbeing function is now defined as the terms of ‘θ’, while its conceptual but non-measurable phenomenological complete indicator of levels of unity intertemporal form is given by W(X(θ);t(θ)). of knowledge between the knowledge-induced variables Moreover, point 4 of Fig. 1 is the evolutionary that characterize the wellbeing function, its simulation learning stage that completes in any IIE-learning process possibility and analytical interpretation of the estimation the abstraction followed by functional ontology of and simulation results. This holistic meaning of formalism and its evidential evaluation. Phenomenology phenomenology in the Tawhidi methodological worldview as the evaluation of organically unified systems brings of unity of knowledge is sustained across IIE-learning together the three important evaluative points. These are processes over knowledge, space, time dimensions. namely, conceptualization of wellbeing, followed by its The evaluated coefficients represent the automatically systemic evaluation, followed by sustained continuity of generated so-called Shari’ah indicators corresponding to the the same types of IIE-learning processes across events selected variables of the wellbeing function. They exist in and history of system ensemble (Hubner et al., 1985) in inter-causality and convey both actual states of the knowledge, space and time dimensions. wellbeing indicators and the potentially simulated ones as predictors that are generated by means of a combination of The study of socio-scientific consciousness is therefore primal ontological researching, discourse by way of Islamic the completion of abstraction followed by evidential consultative (IIE-learning processes) and statistical evaluation. The term evaluation here means firstly, the algorithmic evaluation. straightforward estimation of the wellbeing function subject The deeper meaning of phenomenology in above to circular causation of the inter-variable relations. explanation further explains how the Tawhidi Secondly, this estimation is followed by simulation of the consciousness enters the conceptual, applied and coefficients of the estimated equations including the continued sustainable perspectives of mind and matter. estimation and simulation of the quantitative form of the Kaku (2015) writes regarding this broader precept of wellbeing function, as shown in Fig. 1. consciousness in the following words that unravel the 66 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 neural cybernetic nature of phenomenology as the As the Shari’ah indicators fail to implicate the moral embedding of consciousness in artefacts: “Consciousness is and ethical embedding as in {X(θ)}, the endogenous the process of creating a model of the world using multiple nature of inter-variable causality remains absent, feedback loops in various parameters (e.g. in temperatures, contrary to the pervasively endogenous nature of space, time and in relation to others), in order to accomplish complementarities between moral/ethical and cognitive a goal (e.g., find mates, food, shelter).” Kaku calls the variables res extensa. The permanent existence of above definition of phenomenological consciousness as the exogenously treated morality and ethics in the ‘aqd’- ‘space-time theory of consciousness. In our work legal based perspective of Shari’ah, as engineered by consciousness (phenomenology) is referred to in terms of human understanding, fails to bestow uniqueness and the spanning over knowledge, space and time dimensions universality to the Shari’ah indicators of spirituality. The (Choudhury, 2017). failure to signify and well-define the knowledge-induced Shari’ah Based Indices variables {X(θ)}, render spirituality indicators (as defined by embedded qur’anic values by endogenous and conscious Within the Tawhidi methodology explained by Fig. 1 treatment) absent in the human concocted Shari’ah rules. the Shari’ah dynamics is explained by the process starting from Point 2 onwards. Yet a dissociative break Islamic Spirituality Index: Universality and occurs at several places repeated along the Tawhidi uniqueness String Relations (Fig. 1). The problem of fiqh and Islamic spirituality to be globally universal and Shari’ah starting from point 2 was stated in the above- unique in abstraction and application must be mentioned words of Muhammad Asad. This problem has inextricably endowed by the following properties: deepened and continued in present-days’ commercial practices according to different Islamic theological 1. The body (X(.)) and the soul (‘θ’) to make the schools and sects implicating what is self-conducively endogenous knowledge embedding in {X(θ)} and its termed as ‘Shari’ah compliance’. various positive monotonic transformations must The problem of ‘aqd as opposed to the Tawhidi well-define the abstraction and the empirical and foundation of monotheistic unity of knowledge appears analytical applications possible. The spirituality in at each of the points. Point 1 is never addressed primally. cognitive details is thus ingrained in generality and Yet this is the primal command of the Qur’an. Hence details in the issues and problems of the investigated the Shari’ah approach remains without an ontological world-system problem. In Islam the universal and and epistemological foundation perceptibly (Nusseibeh, 2017). The foundational methodology of the Tawhidi unique foundation of spirituality is the monotheistic ontological law of unity of knowledge. An example worldview in the Qur’an and Sunnah is ignored by the differences of human interpretations concerning of such a world-system and its global indicator for Shari’ah. Consequently, the organic relations of unity of evaluation by the wellbeing function is the knowledge leading to circular causation and the development index of sustainability complementary perspective of the objective criterion of 2. Thereby, along with (1) the universal objective wellbeing is abandoned. The ethics of such relations as criterion of wellbeing must be specified in the organic inter-causality does not appear in any of the framework of inter-causal organic unity of organic substantiation of the Shari’ah. Thereby, the knowledge as the foundational meaning of balance Shari’ah indicators remain separable and non-integrated. and life-fullfiling multidimensional values Shari’ah as humanly developed does not bear point 4 and 3. The universality of such development and wellbeing thus remains unable to embed morality and ethics arising indicators is explained by the Interactive, Integrated from the Tawhidi methodological worldview into and Evolutionary (IIE) learning inter-variable Interacting, Integrating and Evolutionary (IIE) learning organic unity of being and becoming by the ever- variables. The concept of phenomenology as expanding sequences of consciousness through the consciousness, as explained at point 4 in Fig. 1, remains wellbeing evaluation (i.e. estimation followed by absent in the human mechanism of the Shari’ah. All the simulation) in terms of the variables. There is no above problems of the human interpretation in the need in such a globally universal concept of Shari’ah cause the Shari’ah indicators to be wishful ones development and wellbeing indicator of spirituality with no methodological and sustainable implications of caused by the pervasive presence of {X(θ)} to limit point 5 regarding continuity. Thereby, the intertemporal variables to countable selective attributes such as, nature of development and wellbeing indicators fail to justice, consciousness, goodness, balance, neighbourly exist in the human mechanism of the Shari’ah (Bank values (RCGG, 1995). There are far more value- Negara, (2016), internet link visited Aug. 2016). induced variables to comprehend in abstraction and application with the simulational expansion of Qur’an (2:117): “To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and evolutionary learning across inter-causal processes the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is.” 67 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 4. Uniqueness of the development and wellbeing The compound wellbeing function can be obtained by: criterion of spirituality is established firmly on the org org primal ontological law of Tawhid and its moral W D (θ ) ⋅W ρ θ =W D (θ ) , ρ θ . (2) ( ) { ( )} ( { ( )} dc c dc org ( dc dc c dc dc dc ) construction of the specific issues and problems of the world-system under study The development variables and organizational 5. The spirituality index of development in wellbeing variables as given in (1) and (2) above are further is devoid of exogenous separability between the disaggregated by the inner socio-economic variables. socio-economic variables {X} and instead by its These variables are stochastically linked and inter-causal essential embedding by {θ}. Figure 1 shows that in nature. Hence the circular causation relations in the multi-systemic indexes are integrated together in the evaluation of the inter-systemic variables exist to explain wellbeing function the inter-variable causality of the endogenous nature of 6. Thus at the end, the evaluated wellbeing function in organic relations relating to unity of knowledge of abstraction and applications forms the universal and complementarities and participation between the unique objective criterion of spirituality in Islam. From representative variables. The inter-meshing of the data in the right hand side of this general objective criterion specific indexes can be org derived out of the circular causation relations (2) vector, (D (θ ), {ρ (θ )}), can be done between c dc dc dc the variables and cross-sectional-time-series data for org Spiritual Wellbeing Indices and Milienium D (θ ), plus the non-parametric data for {ρ (θ )}. c dc dc dc Development Index See below in Fig. 2 for data inter-meshing method and its meso-economic modeling. The variables in these Here we present the structure of the sprituality vectors are related by circular causation relations as indices of the development and organizational behaviour shown in Fig. 2 across countries ‘c’. The unifying in endogenously which is in the form of unified world- knowledge-inducing variable is the measurable form of system of wellbeing, maslaha. As we know that, the the wellbeing function. In the total number of circular dvelopment indexes are defined by UNDP as a Human causation relations the quantitative form of the wellbeing Development Index in terms of separable indicators. This is function takes the functional form across the two done by separating the Human Development Index (HDI) org org domains of D and θ , θ = Avg(θ ,θ ). The c dc dc dc by countries (h ). Poverty indexes 1 and 2 by countries compound wellbeing function is now given by: (PI ), Gender Empowerment Index (GEM ), Happiness c c Index by countries (H ), Corruption Index by countries org θ = F D θ ,ρ θ θ . (3) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) c dc dc dc (Ci ). Let’s add to these, the Millenium Development Index by countries (MD ). The vector of development indexes is Furthermore, a wider aggregation of the spiritually thereby expressed as: induced index for the global order can be formalized for the interdependent countries in terms of their variables D = {h ,PI ,GEM ,H ,CI ,MD } (1) c c c c c c c and ordinalized degrees of complementarities of unity of knowledge between the country-specific variables Let the organizational decision-making index by globally. We denote the resulting wellbeing function in preferences for each of the development indicator (D ) terms of the development and organizational preference for each country can be defined by {ρ } (Simon, dc variables forming indices of the interdependence 1987 for details). between development sustainability and organizational The above two sets of indices are included in the preferences in decision-making. wellbeing function by its detailed properties of Conceptual and Quantitative forms of Spiritual Index Interaction, Integration and Evolutionary learning (IIE- as Wellbeing Function Evaluated Subject to Circular learning properties). As shown in Fig. 1, two systemic wellbeing functions, (i) one for development and the Causation in Development and Preferences second (ii) for the organizational decision-making. Both Evaluation of W(θ) = W(D,ρ)[θ], gives the can be generated by a similar IIE-learning properties. Let compounded aggregation over ‘c’ and their these wellbeing functions be: interdependent socio-economic and preference variables all induced by ‘θ’, as shown above. Because of the IIE- W D θ , for development, ( ( )) dc c dc learning process nature of preference formation we can (1) org W θ , for organizational decision − making. write the aggregate dynamic social preference function { } ( ) org dc I, interaction I, integration org as, ρ(θ) = ∪ ∩ {ρ (θ )} ; with dc dc I,I evolutionary learning shown by, d{ρ(θ)}/dθ > 0 in The unity of body and soul in defining a theory of numbers is respect of the interdependence between socio-economic formalized by Dewitt (1992), Supermanifolds, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. variables, wherein, ρ(θ) = f(D(θ)). 68 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 Development Indicators W(θ) of D(θ) [life-fullfilment needs]: [h PI GEM H CI MD](θ) θ s.t. Circular Organizational Indicators of ρ(θ) [ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ](θ) θ h PI GEM H CI MD Ethical decision-making (e.g. CSR): Causation Fig. 2: Spiritual θ-embedded development indices and organizational inter-causal indices derived from the objective criterion of evaluating wellbeing criterion results. Thirdly, the quantitative measure of wellbeing The circular causation relations are, D = f (D ,ρ); ρ = i i j i on the basis of time-series data denotes the average of g (D,ρ ), i ≠ j = 1,2,.... and finally, there is the i j the data-ranks estimated on the basis of the time- quantitative form of the wellbeing function, θ = series data. This is denoted by ‘θ’. Fourth, with the F(D,ρ)[θ], as a monotonic positive derived functional of ‘θ’ index as quantitatively estimated wellbeing W(θ) = W(D,ρ)[θ]. function there are the individual time-series values Moreover, Fig. 2 also explains the country-specific generated ‘θ ’-values. Fifth, the number of attributes and global (suffixes are suppressed) nexus of systemic are devised to be the same as the number of interrelations between the development and parametric values. This is acceptable, as the attributes organizational variables in the wellbeing criterion. Such are surveyed corresponding to the specific parametric complementary interrelations in the framework of values and averaged within each such group. Sixth, organic unity of knowledge is attained in and by the Avg (θ) and Avg(θ’) correspond to the row-specific wellbeing function in terms of the relational variables of (θ ,θ )-values/responses. t A the Tawhidi index of wellbeing as this was defined Data inter-meshing is an aspct of meso-economic earlier (refer Fig. 1) as the true and principal Islamic model wherein a mix of micro and macro data and index of spirituality in terms of θ ∈(Ω,S). methods are complexly interrelated with their unique Addendum: Data inter-meshing in meso-economic 10 form of analysis. Such models and analysis neither perspective of Islamic economics. belong to microeconomics nor macroeconomics wholly. Here we explain how data inter-meshing is done Yet they are profoundly rooted in methodology and between time series and cross-sectional/survey data at a apply to real world problems. A pertinent example of given point of time (see Bhatti, 2013 ) is a mathematical such problems is the one we are studying in this paper. undertaking under simplifying assumptions. It is That is the decision-making structure of learning assumed firstly that, survey responses to questionnaires organizations. The decision-making situation in such a on Islamic ethical attributes remain unchanged over the case is multidimensional and invoke multivariates that given period of time corresponding to the statistical arise from the mix of microeconomic and time-series data. Secondly, the average value of the macroeconomic database and informed knowledge. attribute-ranks calculated on the basis of non- We define meso-economics in the broad conception parametric responses (say θ’) denotes the quantitative of microscience as follows: “Meso-science implies there measure of wellbeing on the basis of the non- are some underlying principles that can unify different parametric evaluation of financial data via survey disciplines and all disciplines may be involved in contributing available disciplinarily specific knowledge Islamic Economics is ontological premised on the precept of oneness at corresponding levels to revealing common between the good things of life while avoiding the unwanted ones as principles for meso-scales at all levels. A small described by the Tawhidi law functioning on choices and functionality change in the angle to view old problems could lead to of such knowledge-induced choices in ‘everything’. Islamic Economics is different from mainstream economics in respect of this principal a big progress in solving them.” ontological law. The consequences of such a difference between “Mesoscale (herewith) refers to a range of scale in Islamic economics centered in the Tawhidi law as the primal ontology between the micro- (element) scale and the macro- and mainstream economics triggers off vastly different implications in (system) scale and, within this range of scale, a all of economic reasoning and its analytical study. Thereby we refer to one such mammoth difference by the characterization of Islamic characteristic structure exists, namely meso-structure, economics as meso-economics. For fresh reinvestigation on the featuring dynamic heterogeneity in space and time, ontological beginnings of economics as science see Lawson (1997). which is critical to the performance of the system. Economics and Reality, Routledge, London, England. Called complex ‘multi-cluster effects’ for empirical application in the area of data mining and knowledge discovery. SNE (2019). “What is meso-science or mesosciance?” Switzerland. 69 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 Parameters at the mesoscale are needed to bridge the compute unified global welbeing indices. The global mechanism at the element scale to the behavior of the development agenda decided in the Millennium system. The objective of mesoscience is to develop a Development Goals (MDG) and sustainable goals principle as general as possible to make such a bridge for declarations were adapted by the social scientists in the different levels of disciplines…..” first half of twentieth century which have been proven Islamic economics can be characterized as meso- deficient and the development index are being modified economics. In this regard Choudhury writes: “Islamic continously so that a more comprehensive model can be Economics is neither a microeconomic nor a adopted. This paper is a timely attempt to demostrate the macroeconomic study framed in these mainstream usefulness of our model in computing human well being dichotomies.” The moral and ethical foundation of indices with embedded spiritual values. Islamic economics emerges from the possibility of Concluding Remarks symbiotic inter-causality at the mesoscales of methodology, behaviour, applications and continuity. In this study a unified organizational model is Integrated together by methodological abstraction and proposed rather than ephemeral innovation to the applications, the resulting mesoscale phenomenological existing practices (Davies and Brady, 2015). This paper study presents a distinctive methodological worldview of argues that a large proportion of Tawhidi ‘spirituality led organic unity of knowledge. In the Qur’anic terminology prosperity’ match with the mesoscience framework and this monotheistic worldview is referred to as Tawhid, the goals of analytical Islamic economics as meso- universal Law of ‘everything’. economics. To explain this aspect of Tawhidi ontological The nature of Islamic economics as mesoscience worldview it was necessary to extract the emergent requires data inter-meshing. This has the following mathematical and analytical composition of the paper in characteristics: The following strip of the detailed table its explanation on spirituality. Hence the Tawhidi of inter-meshed data is shown below: ontological worldview of unity of knowledge as paired unity of being and becoming can be utilized to achieve Parametric time- Non-parametric global development targets of wellbeing. Examples series data {θ,x(θ)} attributes data thereby are the derived wellbeing goals of alleviating (θ*,A(θ*)Time x θ x A θ’ … A θ’ Avg poverty and quantifying the spirituality context of 1 1 2 1 1 n n wellbeing index. The Tawhid centered wellbeing θ … x Avg (θ ) = θt = (θ’) = θ’ at a point of time 2 n t criterion also identifies the existing sources of 1,2….,T survey of questionnaire θ development data that could be utilized to construct the index in accordance with the objectives of unity of We ask the statistical question: How dispersed are knowledge as the primal ontological law. Thereby, the average values of (θ,θ’)? Value-in order to tally the Tawhid based Islamic development indices and its authenticity of the wellbeing results estimated from the formalized millennium goals of embedded moral and parametric and non-parametric sides. The smallest value of maierial sensitivity can be constructed on a global the dispersion indicator nearest to zero gives the best result: scale. The index of unity of knowledge thus constructed is quite different from those on HDI in the • Dispersion Indicator = |(θ-θ’)| literature. The intent in this paper underlying the • θ’ remains constant for the non-parametric formula spirituality index is to establish an example on the ontological basis of unity of knowledge. If we take all the terms in natural logarithms, then in A further contribution of this paper is to introduce the the coefficient form of the quantitative estimated method of mesoscience in the study and model wellbeing function expressed in natural logarithmic θ formulation of Islamic economics as meso-economics. and θ’ values, the following expression holds: Such a methodological originality is made possible by inculcating the Tawidi methodology of unity of T knowledge as relational pairing by inter-variables Dispersion Indicator = α .Inx − Inθ’ (4) ∑ t t t =1 circular causation complementarities vis the wellbeing criterion. The underlying complexity in building the The Equation (4) above, under expressions (3), (2) model formulation and database development of meso- and (1) can be used to conduct empirical studies to economic variables ought to engage the research interests of researchers in Islamic economics. [Huang and Edwards (2018). “Mesoscience: exploring the common principle at mesoscales”, Natural Science Review, 5:3, pp. 321-326. [Choudhury (2012). “The ‘Tawhidi’ Precept in Science”, in Muzaffar Ethics Iqbal (ed.) Studies in the Islam and Science Nexus Volume I, Ashgate, London, Eng. This article is original and contains unpublished 70 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 material. The corresponding author confirms that all of Kaku, M., 2015. Consciousness-a Physicist’s the other authors have read and approved the manuscript Viewpoint. 1st Edn., Doubleday, and no ethical issues involved. ISBN-10: 038553082X, pp: 400. Lawson, T., 1997. Economics and Reality. 1st Edn., Routledge, London, England, References ISBN-13: 9780429229466, pp: 384. Barrow, J.D., 1991. Theories of Everything: The Quest Maddox, I.J., 1970. Elements of Functional Analysis. 1st for Ultimate Explanation. 1st Edn., Oxford Edn., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, University Press, ISBN-10: 0198539282, pp: 240. ISBN-10: 052135868X, pp: 242. Bhatti, M., 2013. Islamic mutual funds performance for Mustafa, O.M. and F.M. Taib, 2016. The Performance emerging market, during bullish and bearish: The Measures of ISLAMIC Banking based on the Maqasid case of Malaysia. Framework. In: Islamic Financial Economy and Buchman, D., 1988. Al-Ghazali Niche of Lights. 1st Islamic Banking, Choudhury, M.A. (Ed.), Routledge, Edn., Brigham University Press, Provo, Utah. London, ISBN-13: 9781315590011, pp: 274. Choudhury, M.A., 2012. The ‘Tawhidi’ Precept in Nusseibeh, S., 2017. The Nature of Truth. In: His the Science. In: Studies in the Islam and Science Nexus, Theory of Reason in Islam, Rescher N. and U. Majer Iqbal, M. (Ed.), Ashgate, London, (Eds.), Springer, Dordrecht, ISBN-13: 9781315242187, pp: 568. ISBN-13: 978-94-011-3738-6, pp: 167-168. Choudhury, M.A., 2015. Res extensa et res cogitans de Prigogine, I., 1980. From being to becoming. W.H. maqasid as-Shari’ah. Int. J. Law Manage., 57: Freeman, San Francisco, CA. 662-693. DOI: 10.1108/IJLMA-07-2014-0046 RCGG, 1995. Global Civic Ethic. In: Our Global Choudhury, M.A., 2017. A Phenomenological Theory of Neighbourhood, a Report of the Commission on Islamic Economics. 1st Edn., University of Malaya Global Governance, RCGG (Ed.), Oxford Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, University Press, New York, pp: 55-67. ISBN-13: 9831009479, pp: 263. Rucker, R., 1982. Large Cardinals. In: His Infinity and Davies, A. And T. Brady, 2015. Explicating the the Mind, Rucker, R., (Ed.), Bantam Books, New dynamics of project capabilities. Int. J. Project York, NY, pp: 273-286. Manage., 9: 48-58. Simon, H., 1987. Decision Making and Organizational Dewitt, B., 1992. Supermanifolds. 2nd Edn., Cambridge Design. In: Organizational Theory, Pugh, D.S. (Ed.), University Press, Cambridge, England, Penguin Books, Hammondsworth, Middlesex, pp: ISBN-13: 9780511564000. 202-23. Huang, W.L.J. and P. Edwards, 2018. Mesoscience: SNE, 2019. What is meso-science or mesosciance? Exploring the common principle at mesoscales. Switzerland. Natural Sci. Rev., 5: 321-326. Syed A.S. and H. Hasan, 2015. Towards a Maqasid al- DOI: 10.1093/nsr/nwx083 Shari`ah based development index, mimeo. Hubner, K., P.R.J.R. Dixon and H.M. Dixon, 1985. Wilson, E.O., 1998. Consilience, Unity of Knowledge. Foundations of a Universal Historistic Theory of 1st Edn., Vantage Press, New York, pp: 332. The Empirical Sciences. In: His Critique of Scientific Reason, Hubner, K., P.R.J.R. Dixon and H.M. Dixon (Eds.), The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp: 105-122. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Social Sciences Unpaywall

Unified Model of Global Wellbeing as Index of Spirituality and Socio-Economic Development: The Islamic Economic Approach

Journal of Social SciencesJan 1, 2020

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Journal of Social Sciences Original Research Paper Unified Model of Global Wellbeing as Index of Spirituality and Socio-Economic Development: The Islamic Economic Approach Masudul Alam Choudhury Faculty of Business Administration, University of Science and Technology Chittagong, Bangladesh Article history Abstract: The paper firstly establishes the ontological methodology Received: 24-09-2019 according to the qu’anic monotheistic law, Tawhid and its unitary Revised: 09-01-2020 relationship in the world-system of ‘everything’. Tawhid as the primal Accepted: 07-04-2020 ontological law in the Qur’an is differently poised to Shari’ah as the latter’ sectarian nature that evolved over time. Consequently, the concept of Email: [email protected] spirituality derived from the Tawhidi law is explained in terms of the precept of oneness between the good things of life while avoiding the unwanted ones. The imminent methodological consequences of Tawhid as law on the topic of spirituality and organization are explained by an analytical model that is empirically viable. Furthermore, the other examples are regarding the development of the wellbeing index to express the ontological role of Tawhidi unity of knowledge. The place of Islamic economics is thereby explained with the imminent Tawehidi ontological premise. Keywords: Tawhid as Monotheistic Oneness, Qur’an, Shari’ah, Ontology and World-System, Wellbeing, Spirituality rights, which are considered as a part of the Introduction transcendental law of monotheistic oneness and its The understanding of the foundational ontological relationship with the unified world-system (Ω). law in Islam, namely the monotheistic oneness of God Contrary to Tawhid as the qur’anic divine law of (termed Tawhid) as one that meets universal wellbeing oneness, fiqh as juristic interpretation to justice in almost all in the global sense, rather than being confined to areas of human endeavour, has historically served the Muslims alone, has been grossly ignored. Academic interests of sects, as well as mainly financial and legal research concerning the so-called Islamic Law, the groups among Muslims. Thus the exegesis of qur’anic law Shari’ah and the three elements of its inner configuration (also wisely directed by the Sunnah- a carrier of the (namely, the Qur’an, Prophetic practice called the qur’anic law to the generalized and particular cases of the Sunnah and human juristic interpretation and practice issues and problems under study) has been marred by known as fiqh) have been intertwined in an incoherent wishful human interpretations. Examples of such cases are 1 2 way. In early days of Islam , Shari’ah scholars found in the contrariness of interpretations in the Shari’ah identified five main securities to mankind around which among different Muslim sects, for example in broader the spiritual teaching of Islam leads to prosperity; faith sense, Sunni and Shia. To the extent, the principal Sunni (deen), life, Intellect, lineage or posterity and property sects further consist of the Hanafi, Shafei, Hanbali schools of thought which bring complex horizontal and vertical The period starts from the time of the Prophet Muhammad (570-632 divisions to the communities in Muslim majority countries. C.E.) including the age of the Orthodox Caliphate (632-661 C.E.), the The consequences that ensue as the universal law of noble companions and the succeeding generations till the Umayyad and Tawhid have been lost. The principle law of the Qur’an Abbasid Eras (661-1258) as one that is applicable to Muslims and non-Muslims Shari`ah is considered as the sacred way to understand the law of Islamic monotheism in Islam, Tawhid in its applied form. It is derived alike in the ontological sense of systemic oneness and is from the Quran, the Sunnah (the sayings and deeds of the Prophet uniquely relevant to the realms of the animate and the Muhammad during his life time), Ijma’ (consensus), Qiyas (reasoning cosmological world-systems through abstraction and by analogy) and Maslaha (consideration of the public good or common application, needs to be understood. This central law of need). See Qur’an (45:18) © 2020 Masudul Alam Choudhury. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 3.0 license. Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 monotheism, referred to as Tawhid in the Qur’an, has (Wilson, 1998; Prigogine, 1980) is a physical model as been replaced with a distorted picture of what is now prototype of unity of knowledge. The algorithmic but not defined as the Shari’ah- a product of misinterpretations the substantive meaning of Tawhidi methodology of by opportunist clerical and theological differences. A unity of knowledge is formally represented by the great divide thus exists between the definitions of consilience model. Yet more significantly, using these Tawhid and Shari’ah, as a result of the vagaries of analytical models, the Tawhidi methodological human desire, geo-political, ethno-religious and worldview of pervasive unity of knowledge with commercial interests. moral induction gives the scheme and order of all An example in this regard is the legitimation of the unified developmental entities. These are not Shari’ah commercial instruments as contracts (‘aqd’), comprehended either by the idea of biological contrary to the unified understanding of financing consilience or the social Shari’ah approach. instruments under the Tawhidi methodology, one which What the Shari’ah approach has tried to formulate integrates and simulates possibilities across unifying are humanly self-assigned coefficient values to systems of thought -- transdisciplinarity. Furthermore, variables of the development index. A deconstruction Shari’ah has remained in its narrow pale of legal of the aggregate index of wellbeing governed by the contracts relating to worldly affairs [Ω→S: (Ω,S)], in purpose and objective of the Shari’ah termed as maqasid as-Shari’ah, has been tried but the limits of contrast to a greater domain- which studies worldly matters as well as the abstractions and evidences of deconstruction face the problem of differentiated categories in the indexes, indicators and variables and universal categories in general (e.g., cosmological entities) (Choudhury, 2015). their relations. Thereby, the exogenously assigned numerical values of the coefficients makes the whole This paper attempts to tackle this complex indexing exercise to be a personated design in existing subdivisional phenomena among human society and practices rather than a natural objective criterion introduces the Tawhidi methodological worldview (Davies and Brady, 2015). (monotheism) unified model of ontological law of unity Pertinent to such problems is the structure of the of knowledge invoked by the Qur’an and the Sunnah. development index. Most often linear forms are used but These together enhance spirituality and material without a basis of such derivations (Mustafa and Taib, prosperity3. Thereby, no standardization and harmonization 2016; Syed and Hasan, 2015). At the end, the Shari’ah has been determined by a mistaken approach to the development indices have remained void of formulating identification of what truly is the primal ontological Islamic the endogenous embedding of moral and ethical values law. Is it the law of the Shari’ah or the universal law of of the Qur’anic genre in the representative variables of primal ontological origin of Tawhid in the Qur’an, the First the material goods, services and cognition by ways of Law? Tawhid i.e. the Qur’an is transmitted by the authentic abstraction and applications. Sunnah into the knowledge embedded in everything of the The structure of the rest of the paper is as follows. In the universal world-system. Indeed, here is what Buchman next section we develop a unified Tawhidi methodological (1998, p. xviii)) writes regarding the prevalence of the worldview model which turns into substantiation of the Tawhidi worldview in the medieval Islamic age being wellbeing function as the groundwork for the development different from those who have failed to understand the res of wellbeing universal index. In section 3, Islamic cogitans and res extensa of the Tawhidi weltanschauung: spirituality indexation process is presented to demonstrate “... It (the book, Ghazali’s Niche of Lights) may be helpful to elucidate the general ‘Tawhid-centered worldview of its unique and universal application in the area of spiritual twelfth-century Islam. People today-Muslims and non- wellbeing inline with the Millenium Development Index Muslims alike-usually hold drastically different (MDI). The parametric and nonparametric data meshing assumptions on the nature of existence than those held by process is proposed which establishes causality by al-Ghazali and most of his contemporaries”. forward and backward stochastic linkages established On the topic of development indexing, the Shari’ah by the ontological law of unity of knowledge using focuses ‘Uqud’, separable legal contracts. The Islamic time series, cross-sectional and/or survey data to attempts to formulate such development indexing have conduct empirical work. The implication of meso- missed the treatment of the systemic relational organism economics is thus invoked. The final section contains that is essential to be derived from the Tawhidi unity of some concluding remarks. knowledge. The consilience of being and becoming The Unified Tawhidi Welbeing Model Qur’an (59: 7): “So that it (wealth) may not (make) a circuit between Tawhidi Based Wellbeing Indicators the rich among you”, Qur’an (53: 1-3): “By the star when it descends, your companion This section presents the topological foundation of [Muhammad] has not strayed, nor has he erred, Nor does he speak the unified model which is free from ethno-religiousity, from [his own] inclination.” 64 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 race, colour, sects and soci-economic division. To begin, nature of Tawhidi unity of knowledge. Thereby, we refer to Fig. 1 which provides the difference in knowledge-flows ‘θ’ induces all functional methodological sense between the primal ontological law transformations in their various monotonic relations. of Tawhidi unity of knowledge and the fiqi (jurisprudential) Thus the moral embedding of the world-system is approach of the Shari’ah. The details of the two denoted by {X(θ)}. The world-system that is spanned by methodologies are explained in respect of the generality of the embedding of knowledge-flows arising from the the endogenous moral embedding in representative ontology of unity of knowledge and its epistemological variables for Tawhid. On the other hand, there is the processes out of discourse and interpretation is denoted impossibility of this endogenous embedding by Shari’ah as by {θ,X(θ)} and its family of knowledge-induced conveyed by its exogenous treatment of moral values. embedding as moral transformations of the generality The Tawhidi methodological worldview and particulars of the world-system. The coterminous (monotheism) as the primal ontological law of unity of determination of knowledge from the primal ontology knowledge invokes the Qur’an and the Sunnah in their of Tawhidi unity of knowledge and its purest form as supercardinal topology of fullness of epistemological derivation of knowledge-flows and knowledge in the open and unbounded domain of Ω knowledge-induced world-system completes the (Qur’an) at the point 1 in Fig. 1. Elements of Ω as such construction of the totality of the moral and ethicized a complete topology of knowledge is mapped by ‘S’ world-system and its particulars. Note that this event (Sunnah as teaching of the Prophet Muhammad) to occurs at the point 3 of Fig. 1. generate knowledge-flows of the generality and The evaluation of the morally constructed world- particulars of issues and problems under study in system in terms of the epistemological consequences of diverse world-systems. Because ‘S’ is inextricably Tawhidi ontology of unity of knowledge is carried out linked with Ω as a well-defined topological mapping to by the objective criterion of the generalized world- derive as, [Ω→ : (Ω,S)]. Point 2 in Fig. 1 shows the system and its particulars. This objective criterion is the derivation of interpretive knowledge. Thereby firstly, wellbeing function denoted by W(θ,X(θ)). It is referred {θ*} is derived from Ω by the primal ontological to in Islamic terminology as maslaha. Along with the function of (Ω,S). possibility of multiple transformations of {θ,X(θ)} there We thereby write, (Ω,S) → {θ*}. Furthermore, from also follow the family of monotonic positive {θ*} by discourse concerning the issues and problems transformations denoted by {W(θ,X(θ))}. under construction the participants of this interactive At the point 3 of Fig. 1, {W(θ,X(θ))} is evaluated process arrive at consensus (integration) to determine a in response to the features of the Tawhidi ontological given station of unification of knowledge of the and epistemological properties. That is {(θ,X(θ))} are interpretive derivation from (Ω,S) → {θ*}. This worldly characterised by three discursive processes; derivation of unity of knowledge for induction in the interaction (I), integration (I) and evolutionary (E) - unity of the generality and particulars of the world- (IIE)-learning of the knowledge derivation and system under study is denoted by {θ} as knowledge- knowledge-flows in unity of knowledge. Such flows from the primal ontological domain. We thereby processes occur between agents, agencies and write, (Ω,S) →{θ*)→{θ}, for ∀ tuple {θ*,θ}∈(Ω,S) organisms. All these are explained in terms of the along with monotonically positive relational knowledge-induced symbiotic variables. The transformations of {θ*,θ}. The derivation of such consequential organic unity of knowledge between diversity of {θ*,θ} from the primal ontology of super such variables in abstraction and empirical cardinal topology Ω by way of the topological mapping applications is explained in a system of inter-causal ‘S’ (Maddox, 1970; Rucker, 1982), is the epistemology relations. The Qur’an refers to such evolutionary that is induced as moral organism in the variables and learning dynamics as re-origination (khalq in-jadid) their relations representing the generality and specifics of through the participative and complementary organically the issues and problems under study. unified processes of ‘pairing’ (Azwajaha Kullaha). Thereby, the representative variables, {X(θ)} are simultaneously and continuously determined along with Qur’an (30:11): “It is God Who begins (the process of) creation; then the continuity of {θ} as derived knowledge-flows of the repeats it; then shall you be brought back to Him.” Qur’an (36:36): “Glory to God, Who created in pairs all things that the Qur’an (4:59): “O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind and (other) things of messenger and those in authority among you. and if you disagree over which they have no knowledge.” anything, refer it to Allah and the messenger, if you should believe in Qur’an (51:49): “And of every thing We have created pairs: That ye Allah and the last day. that is the best [way] and best in result.” may receive instructions.” 65 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 1 2 3 Formalism and Ontology of Tawhidi Tawhidi construction Tawhidi Law Epistemology Phenomenology Continuity recall (Ω,S) and continuum (Ω,S) {θ*)→{θ}→{X(θ)} : {θ,X(θ);t(θ)}, intertemporal Eval.W(X(θ);t(θ)) [conceptual wellbeing, aslaha] subject to, circular causation (Qur’anic pairing) X (θ) = f (X (θ),θ); (i ≠ j) = 1,2,…n i i j θ = F(X(θ);t(θ)) [ordinal evaluation of wellbeing] In multiple wellbeing functions as in sustainability and development: Eval. Π W (X (θ);t(θ)) s s s s.t. inter-systemic circular causation relations, X (θ) = f (X (θ),θ) i,i s s,j [1] Fig. 1: Tawhidi methodological worldview contrasted with Shari’ah in practice. By far the larger part of of those supposedly Shari’ah laws is an outcome of the deductions and the subjective reasoning of the great fuquha of our past-deductions and conclusions, to be sure, conscientously based on the context of the Two Sources, but none the less subjective in the sense that they were determined by each faqih’s individual approach to and individual interpretation of problems not laid down [2] unequivocally in terms of the law in either of those Two Sources, the Qur’an and Sunnah. “... No subjective deduction, interpretation or conclusion touching upon any problems of law arrived at by means of the ijtihad (individual reasoning) of any, even the greatest, Muslim scholar can even be binding on the community.” The point 3 of Fig. 1 thus summarizes the functional Simulation is a process estimation with changes in forms of the design of objectivity of the ontologically the coefficients, to increase the possibility of ethically unified knowledge-embedded world-system in terms of reconstructed inter-variable causal relations, rising from the circular causation relations as formalized. Since unity weaker and negative coefficients into stronger and of knowledge as complementary participation exists positive ones. This transformation of the relations would everywhere and in everything (Barrow, 1991), there is imply enhanced levels of participative complementarities likewise the well-defined relationship of knowledge as between the variables representing the moral action of monotonic positive derivation of wellbeing measured in life (life-fullfilment needs). The wellbeing function is now defined as the terms of ‘θ’, while its conceptual but non-measurable phenomenological complete indicator of levels of unity intertemporal form is given by W(X(θ);t(θ)). of knowledge between the knowledge-induced variables Moreover, point 4 of Fig. 1 is the evolutionary that characterize the wellbeing function, its simulation learning stage that completes in any IIE-learning process possibility and analytical interpretation of the estimation the abstraction followed by functional ontology of and simulation results. This holistic meaning of formalism and its evidential evaluation. Phenomenology phenomenology in the Tawhidi methodological worldview as the evaluation of organically unified systems brings of unity of knowledge is sustained across IIE-learning together the three important evaluative points. These are processes over knowledge, space, time dimensions. namely, conceptualization of wellbeing, followed by its The evaluated coefficients represent the automatically systemic evaluation, followed by sustained continuity of generated so-called Shari’ah indicators corresponding to the the same types of IIE-learning processes across events selected variables of the wellbeing function. They exist in and history of system ensemble (Hubner et al., 1985) in inter-causality and convey both actual states of the knowledge, space and time dimensions. wellbeing indicators and the potentially simulated ones as predictors that are generated by means of a combination of The study of socio-scientific consciousness is therefore primal ontological researching, discourse by way of Islamic the completion of abstraction followed by evidential consultative (IIE-learning processes) and statistical evaluation. The term evaluation here means firstly, the algorithmic evaluation. straightforward estimation of the wellbeing function subject The deeper meaning of phenomenology in above to circular causation of the inter-variable relations. explanation further explains how the Tawhidi Secondly, this estimation is followed by simulation of the consciousness enters the conceptual, applied and coefficients of the estimated equations including the continued sustainable perspectives of mind and matter. estimation and simulation of the quantitative form of the Kaku (2015) writes regarding this broader precept of wellbeing function, as shown in Fig. 1. consciousness in the following words that unravel the 66 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 neural cybernetic nature of phenomenology as the As the Shari’ah indicators fail to implicate the moral embedding of consciousness in artefacts: “Consciousness is and ethical embedding as in {X(θ)}, the endogenous the process of creating a model of the world using multiple nature of inter-variable causality remains absent, feedback loops in various parameters (e.g. in temperatures, contrary to the pervasively endogenous nature of space, time and in relation to others), in order to accomplish complementarities between moral/ethical and cognitive a goal (e.g., find mates, food, shelter).” Kaku calls the variables res extensa. The permanent existence of above definition of phenomenological consciousness as the exogenously treated morality and ethics in the ‘aqd’- ‘space-time theory of consciousness. In our work legal based perspective of Shari’ah, as engineered by consciousness (phenomenology) is referred to in terms of human understanding, fails to bestow uniqueness and the spanning over knowledge, space and time dimensions universality to the Shari’ah indicators of spirituality. The (Choudhury, 2017). failure to signify and well-define the knowledge-induced Shari’ah Based Indices variables {X(θ)}, render spirituality indicators (as defined by embedded qur’anic values by endogenous and conscious Within the Tawhidi methodology explained by Fig. 1 treatment) absent in the human concocted Shari’ah rules. the Shari’ah dynamics is explained by the process starting from Point 2 onwards. Yet a dissociative break Islamic Spirituality Index: Universality and occurs at several places repeated along the Tawhidi uniqueness String Relations (Fig. 1). The problem of fiqh and Islamic spirituality to be globally universal and Shari’ah starting from point 2 was stated in the above- unique in abstraction and application must be mentioned words of Muhammad Asad. This problem has inextricably endowed by the following properties: deepened and continued in present-days’ commercial practices according to different Islamic theological 1. The body (X(.)) and the soul (‘θ’) to make the schools and sects implicating what is self-conducively endogenous knowledge embedding in {X(θ)} and its termed as ‘Shari’ah compliance’. various positive monotonic transformations must The problem of ‘aqd as opposed to the Tawhidi well-define the abstraction and the empirical and foundation of monotheistic unity of knowledge appears analytical applications possible. The spirituality in at each of the points. Point 1 is never addressed primally. cognitive details is thus ingrained in generality and Yet this is the primal command of the Qur’an. Hence details in the issues and problems of the investigated the Shari’ah approach remains without an ontological world-system problem. In Islam the universal and and epistemological foundation perceptibly (Nusseibeh, 2017). The foundational methodology of the Tawhidi unique foundation of spirituality is the monotheistic ontological law of unity of knowledge. An example worldview in the Qur’an and Sunnah is ignored by the differences of human interpretations concerning of such a world-system and its global indicator for Shari’ah. Consequently, the organic relations of unity of evaluation by the wellbeing function is the knowledge leading to circular causation and the development index of sustainability complementary perspective of the objective criterion of 2. Thereby, along with (1) the universal objective wellbeing is abandoned. The ethics of such relations as criterion of wellbeing must be specified in the organic inter-causality does not appear in any of the framework of inter-causal organic unity of organic substantiation of the Shari’ah. Thereby, the knowledge as the foundational meaning of balance Shari’ah indicators remain separable and non-integrated. and life-fullfiling multidimensional values Shari’ah as humanly developed does not bear point 4 and 3. The universality of such development and wellbeing thus remains unable to embed morality and ethics arising indicators is explained by the Interactive, Integrated from the Tawhidi methodological worldview into and Evolutionary (IIE) learning inter-variable Interacting, Integrating and Evolutionary (IIE) learning organic unity of being and becoming by the ever- variables. The concept of phenomenology as expanding sequences of consciousness through the consciousness, as explained at point 4 in Fig. 1, remains wellbeing evaluation (i.e. estimation followed by absent in the human mechanism of the Shari’ah. All the simulation) in terms of the variables. There is no above problems of the human interpretation in the need in such a globally universal concept of Shari’ah cause the Shari’ah indicators to be wishful ones development and wellbeing indicator of spirituality with no methodological and sustainable implications of caused by the pervasive presence of {X(θ)} to limit point 5 regarding continuity. Thereby, the intertemporal variables to countable selective attributes such as, nature of development and wellbeing indicators fail to justice, consciousness, goodness, balance, neighbourly exist in the human mechanism of the Shari’ah (Bank values (RCGG, 1995). There are far more value- Negara, (2016), internet link visited Aug. 2016). induced variables to comprehend in abstraction and application with the simulational expansion of Qur’an (2:117): “To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and evolutionary learning across inter-causal processes the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is.” 67 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 4. Uniqueness of the development and wellbeing The compound wellbeing function can be obtained by: criterion of spirituality is established firmly on the org org primal ontological law of Tawhid and its moral W D (θ ) ⋅W ρ θ =W D (θ ) , ρ θ . (2) ( ) { ( )} ( { ( )} dc c dc org ( dc dc c dc dc dc ) construction of the specific issues and problems of the world-system under study The development variables and organizational 5. The spirituality index of development in wellbeing variables as given in (1) and (2) above are further is devoid of exogenous separability between the disaggregated by the inner socio-economic variables. socio-economic variables {X} and instead by its These variables are stochastically linked and inter-causal essential embedding by {θ}. Figure 1 shows that in nature. Hence the circular causation relations in the multi-systemic indexes are integrated together in the evaluation of the inter-systemic variables exist to explain wellbeing function the inter-variable causality of the endogenous nature of 6. Thus at the end, the evaluated wellbeing function in organic relations relating to unity of knowledge of abstraction and applications forms the universal and complementarities and participation between the unique objective criterion of spirituality in Islam. From representative variables. The inter-meshing of the data in the right hand side of this general objective criterion specific indexes can be org derived out of the circular causation relations (2) vector, (D (θ ), {ρ (θ )}), can be done between c dc dc dc the variables and cross-sectional-time-series data for org Spiritual Wellbeing Indices and Milienium D (θ ), plus the non-parametric data for {ρ (θ )}. c dc dc dc Development Index See below in Fig. 2 for data inter-meshing method and its meso-economic modeling. The variables in these Here we present the structure of the sprituality vectors are related by circular causation relations as indices of the development and organizational behaviour shown in Fig. 2 across countries ‘c’. The unifying in endogenously which is in the form of unified world- knowledge-inducing variable is the measurable form of system of wellbeing, maslaha. As we know that, the the wellbeing function. In the total number of circular dvelopment indexes are defined by UNDP as a Human causation relations the quantitative form of the wellbeing Development Index in terms of separable indicators. This is function takes the functional form across the two done by separating the Human Development Index (HDI) org org domains of D and θ , θ = Avg(θ ,θ ). The c dc dc dc by countries (h ). Poverty indexes 1 and 2 by countries compound wellbeing function is now given by: (PI ), Gender Empowerment Index (GEM ), Happiness c c Index by countries (H ), Corruption Index by countries org θ = F D θ ,ρ θ θ . (3) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) c dc dc dc (Ci ). Let’s add to these, the Millenium Development Index by countries (MD ). The vector of development indexes is Furthermore, a wider aggregation of the spiritually thereby expressed as: induced index for the global order can be formalized for the interdependent countries in terms of their variables D = {h ,PI ,GEM ,H ,CI ,MD } (1) c c c c c c c and ordinalized degrees of complementarities of unity of knowledge between the country-specific variables Let the organizational decision-making index by globally. We denote the resulting wellbeing function in preferences for each of the development indicator (D ) terms of the development and organizational preference for each country can be defined by {ρ } (Simon, dc variables forming indices of the interdependence 1987 for details). between development sustainability and organizational The above two sets of indices are included in the preferences in decision-making. wellbeing function by its detailed properties of Conceptual and Quantitative forms of Spiritual Index Interaction, Integration and Evolutionary learning (IIE- as Wellbeing Function Evaluated Subject to Circular learning properties). As shown in Fig. 1, two systemic wellbeing functions, (i) one for development and the Causation in Development and Preferences second (ii) for the organizational decision-making. Both Evaluation of W(θ) = W(D,ρ)[θ], gives the can be generated by a similar IIE-learning properties. Let compounded aggregation over ‘c’ and their these wellbeing functions be: interdependent socio-economic and preference variables all induced by ‘θ’, as shown above. Because of the IIE- W D θ , for development, ( ( )) dc c dc learning process nature of preference formation we can (1) org W θ , for organizational decision − making. write the aggregate dynamic social preference function { } ( ) org dc I, interaction I, integration org as, ρ(θ) = ∪ ∩ {ρ (θ )} ; with dc dc I,I evolutionary learning shown by, d{ρ(θ)}/dθ > 0 in The unity of body and soul in defining a theory of numbers is respect of the interdependence between socio-economic formalized by Dewitt (1992), Supermanifolds, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. variables, wherein, ρ(θ) = f(D(θ)). 68 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 Development Indicators W(θ) of D(θ) [life-fullfilment needs]: [h PI GEM H CI MD](θ) θ s.t. Circular Organizational Indicators of ρ(θ) [ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ρ ](θ) θ h PI GEM H CI MD Ethical decision-making (e.g. CSR): Causation Fig. 2: Spiritual θ-embedded development indices and organizational inter-causal indices derived from the objective criterion of evaluating wellbeing criterion results. Thirdly, the quantitative measure of wellbeing The circular causation relations are, D = f (D ,ρ); ρ = i i j i on the basis of time-series data denotes the average of g (D,ρ ), i ≠ j = 1,2,.... and finally, there is the i j the data-ranks estimated on the basis of the time- quantitative form of the wellbeing function, θ = series data. This is denoted by ‘θ’. Fourth, with the F(D,ρ)[θ], as a monotonic positive derived functional of ‘θ’ index as quantitatively estimated wellbeing W(θ) = W(D,ρ)[θ]. function there are the individual time-series values Moreover, Fig. 2 also explains the country-specific generated ‘θ ’-values. Fifth, the number of attributes and global (suffixes are suppressed) nexus of systemic are devised to be the same as the number of interrelations between the development and parametric values. This is acceptable, as the attributes organizational variables in the wellbeing criterion. Such are surveyed corresponding to the specific parametric complementary interrelations in the framework of values and averaged within each such group. Sixth, organic unity of knowledge is attained in and by the Avg (θ) and Avg(θ’) correspond to the row-specific wellbeing function in terms of the relational variables of (θ ,θ )-values/responses. t A the Tawhidi index of wellbeing as this was defined Data inter-meshing is an aspct of meso-economic earlier (refer Fig. 1) as the true and principal Islamic model wherein a mix of micro and macro data and index of spirituality in terms of θ ∈(Ω,S). methods are complexly interrelated with their unique Addendum: Data inter-meshing in meso-economic 10 form of analysis. Such models and analysis neither perspective of Islamic economics. belong to microeconomics nor macroeconomics wholly. Here we explain how data inter-meshing is done Yet they are profoundly rooted in methodology and between time series and cross-sectional/survey data at a apply to real world problems. A pertinent example of given point of time (see Bhatti, 2013 ) is a mathematical such problems is the one we are studying in this paper. undertaking under simplifying assumptions. It is That is the decision-making structure of learning assumed firstly that, survey responses to questionnaires organizations. The decision-making situation in such a on Islamic ethical attributes remain unchanged over the case is multidimensional and invoke multivariates that given period of time corresponding to the statistical arise from the mix of microeconomic and time-series data. Secondly, the average value of the macroeconomic database and informed knowledge. attribute-ranks calculated on the basis of non- We define meso-economics in the broad conception parametric responses (say θ’) denotes the quantitative of microscience as follows: “Meso-science implies there measure of wellbeing on the basis of the non- are some underlying principles that can unify different parametric evaluation of financial data via survey disciplines and all disciplines may be involved in contributing available disciplinarily specific knowledge Islamic Economics is ontological premised on the precept of oneness at corresponding levels to revealing common between the good things of life while avoiding the unwanted ones as principles for meso-scales at all levels. A small described by the Tawhidi law functioning on choices and functionality change in the angle to view old problems could lead to of such knowledge-induced choices in ‘everything’. Islamic Economics is different from mainstream economics in respect of this principal a big progress in solving them.” ontological law. The consequences of such a difference between “Mesoscale (herewith) refers to a range of scale in Islamic economics centered in the Tawhidi law as the primal ontology between the micro- (element) scale and the macro- and mainstream economics triggers off vastly different implications in (system) scale and, within this range of scale, a all of economic reasoning and its analytical study. Thereby we refer to one such mammoth difference by the characterization of Islamic characteristic structure exists, namely meso-structure, economics as meso-economics. For fresh reinvestigation on the featuring dynamic heterogeneity in space and time, ontological beginnings of economics as science see Lawson (1997). which is critical to the performance of the system. Economics and Reality, Routledge, London, England. Called complex ‘multi-cluster effects’ for empirical application in the area of data mining and knowledge discovery. SNE (2019). “What is meso-science or mesosciance?” Switzerland. 69 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 Parameters at the mesoscale are needed to bridge the compute unified global welbeing indices. The global mechanism at the element scale to the behavior of the development agenda decided in the Millennium system. The objective of mesoscience is to develop a Development Goals (MDG) and sustainable goals principle as general as possible to make such a bridge for declarations were adapted by the social scientists in the different levels of disciplines…..” first half of twentieth century which have been proven Islamic economics can be characterized as meso- deficient and the development index are being modified economics. In this regard Choudhury writes: “Islamic continously so that a more comprehensive model can be Economics is neither a microeconomic nor a adopted. This paper is a timely attempt to demostrate the macroeconomic study framed in these mainstream usefulness of our model in computing human well being dichotomies.” The moral and ethical foundation of indices with embedded spiritual values. Islamic economics emerges from the possibility of Concluding Remarks symbiotic inter-causality at the mesoscales of methodology, behaviour, applications and continuity. In this study a unified organizational model is Integrated together by methodological abstraction and proposed rather than ephemeral innovation to the applications, the resulting mesoscale phenomenological existing practices (Davies and Brady, 2015). This paper study presents a distinctive methodological worldview of argues that a large proportion of Tawhidi ‘spirituality led organic unity of knowledge. In the Qur’anic terminology prosperity’ match with the mesoscience framework and this monotheistic worldview is referred to as Tawhid, the goals of analytical Islamic economics as meso- universal Law of ‘everything’. economics. To explain this aspect of Tawhidi ontological The nature of Islamic economics as mesoscience worldview it was necessary to extract the emergent requires data inter-meshing. This has the following mathematical and analytical composition of the paper in characteristics: The following strip of the detailed table its explanation on spirituality. Hence the Tawhidi of inter-meshed data is shown below: ontological worldview of unity of knowledge as paired unity of being and becoming can be utilized to achieve Parametric time- Non-parametric global development targets of wellbeing. Examples series data {θ,x(θ)} attributes data thereby are the derived wellbeing goals of alleviating (θ*,A(θ*)Time x θ x A θ’ … A θ’ Avg poverty and quantifying the spirituality context of 1 1 2 1 1 n n wellbeing index. The Tawhid centered wellbeing θ … x Avg (θ ) = θt = (θ’) = θ’ at a point of time 2 n t criterion also identifies the existing sources of 1,2….,T survey of questionnaire θ development data that could be utilized to construct the index in accordance with the objectives of unity of We ask the statistical question: How dispersed are knowledge as the primal ontological law. Thereby, the average values of (θ,θ’)? Value-in order to tally the Tawhid based Islamic development indices and its authenticity of the wellbeing results estimated from the formalized millennium goals of embedded moral and parametric and non-parametric sides. The smallest value of maierial sensitivity can be constructed on a global the dispersion indicator nearest to zero gives the best result: scale. The index of unity of knowledge thus constructed is quite different from those on HDI in the • Dispersion Indicator = |(θ-θ’)| literature. The intent in this paper underlying the • θ’ remains constant for the non-parametric formula spirituality index is to establish an example on the ontological basis of unity of knowledge. If we take all the terms in natural logarithms, then in A further contribution of this paper is to introduce the the coefficient form of the quantitative estimated method of mesoscience in the study and model wellbeing function expressed in natural logarithmic θ formulation of Islamic economics as meso-economics. and θ’ values, the following expression holds: Such a methodological originality is made possible by inculcating the Tawidi methodology of unity of T knowledge as relational pairing by inter-variables Dispersion Indicator = α .Inx − Inθ’ (4) ∑ t t t =1 circular causation complementarities vis the wellbeing criterion. The underlying complexity in building the The Equation (4) above, under expressions (3), (2) model formulation and database development of meso- and (1) can be used to conduct empirical studies to economic variables ought to engage the research interests of researchers in Islamic economics. [Huang and Edwards (2018). “Mesoscience: exploring the common principle at mesoscales”, Natural Science Review, 5:3, pp. 321-326. [Choudhury (2012). “The ‘Tawhidi’ Precept in Science”, in Muzaffar Ethics Iqbal (ed.) Studies in the Islam and Science Nexus Volume I, Ashgate, London, Eng. This article is original and contains unpublished 70 Masudul Alam Choudhury / Journal of Social Sciences 2020, Volume 16: 63.71 DOI: 10.3844/jssp.2020.63.71 material. The corresponding author confirms that all of Kaku, M., 2015. Consciousness-a Physicist’s the other authors have read and approved the manuscript Viewpoint. 1st Edn., Doubleday, and no ethical issues involved. ISBN-10: 038553082X, pp: 400. 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