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Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and... Mterialesa de CuCC onstr ión Vol. 66, Issue 321, January–March 2016, e074 ISSN-L: 0465-2746 http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete a a, b E.F. Hernández , P.F. de J. Cano-Barrita *, A.A. Torres-Acosta a. Instituto Politécnico Nacional/CIIDIR Unidad Oaxaca, (Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, Oaxaca, México) b. Universidad Marista de Querétaro, (Querétaro, México) *[email protected] Received 28 october 2014 Accepted 3 June 2015 Available on line 15 january 2016 ABSTRACT: This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c) ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations). Cylindrical specimens (100 mm×200 mm) were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO for 120 days. The compres- sive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control. KEYWORDS: Concrete; Organic admixtures; Compressive strength; Chloride; Durability Citation/Citar como: Hernández, E.F.; de Cano-Barrita, P.F. de J.; Torres-Acosta, A.A. (2016) Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete. Mater. Construcc. 66 [321], e074. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514. RESUMEN: Influencia del mucílago de cactus y extracto de algas pardas marinas en la resistencia a compresión y durabilidad del hormigón. Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración). Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm×200 mm) fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control. PALABRAS CLAVE: Hormigón; Aditivos orgánicos; Resistencia a la compresión; Cloruros; Durabilidad Copyright: © 2016 CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (by-nc) Spain 3.0 License. 2 • E.F. Hernández et al. 1. INTRODUCTION (12) studied Portland cement mortar with a w/c ratio of 0.60 containing lyophilized cactus gum. Their Premature deterioration of reinforced concrete results indicated a 65% compressive strength increase structures represents a serious durability problem. with respect to the control mortar at only three days Understanding the factors that affect the durabil- of age, which is contrary to other studies in which ity of concrete proves useful in proposing solutions the addition of cactus mucilage extended the set- to improve the performance. One of the primary ting times and also negatively affected the compres- causes of deterioration is the corrosion of the rein- sive strength gain at early ages as well as at 28 days forcing steel embedded in concrete (1). Steel corro- (11, 13). Moreover, their results fail to provide a clear sion in reinforced concrete structures is mainly due trend for either increasing or decreasing compressive to the ingress of chloride ions and carbonation of strength with increasing lyophilized cactus gum con- the concrete cover. The high alkalinity of concrete centration. Ramírez et al. (13) used a cactus mucilage (pH≈13) forms an oxide protective layer around the solution to investigate its effects on the properties of steel rebars that is lost when carbonation decreases concrete in a fresh state, on durability in a hardened the pH below 9 or with the entry of chloride ions or state, and on the micro-structural changes in cement under both scenarios (2, 3). As such, the durabil- paste. The viscosity and setting times of the cement ity of a reinforced concrete structure is dependent paste increased with the use of a cactus mucilage on the concrete’s resistance to the penetration of solution. In the microstructure, the formation of aggressive agents (4, 5). calcium hydroxide crystals was not observed. X-ray High performance concrete (HPC) was devel- diffraction analysis also showed the retardant effect oped in response to known durability problems in on the hydration process. Regarding durability, the reinforced concrete structures exposed to a harsh capillary water uptake and the chloride diffusion environment. HPC is characterized by its low water/ coefficients decreased. León-Martínez et al. (14) suc- cementitious materials ratio and by the use of cessfully used cactus mucilage and marine brown chemical and mineral admixtures to reduce perme- algae extract as a viscosity-enhancing admixture ability and increase durability (6). Various protec- for self-consolidating concrete. Torres-Acosta (15) tive methods such as corrosion inhibitors, cathodic evaluated the effect of two dehydrated cacti (Opuntia protection, epoxy and metallic coatings have also ficus indica and Aloe Vera) as corrosion inhibitors in been applied to decrease steel corrosion (7). HPC alkaline media. Their results showed good corrosion may have a moderate cost increase with respect to inhibiting effect on reinforcing steel when chloride ordinary concrete owing to the use of chemical and ions were present, especially when dehydrated nopal mineral admixtures. Similarly, while corrosion pro- was used at 1% and 2% by mass. tection methods increase the time for corrosion ini- Alginate, a salt deriving from the alginic acid tiation, some increase the ultimate cost of concrete obtained from marine brown algae, is another type and are not environmentally friendly (8, 9). of organic admixture that has been used to improve The addition of organic materials has been the the performance of construction materials. Alginate focus of several studies as a sustainable alternative is a polysaccharide composed of a binary non- to improve the mechanical properties and durabil- branched co-polymer from mannuronic (M) and ity of cement-based materials. One such admixture α-L guluronic (G) acids (16, 17). These hydrocol- is cactus mucilage, which has previously been used loids have the capacity to gel through interaction in lime mortars, with the aim of providing a prelimi- with carboxylic groups and divalent ions (18, 19). A nary scientific explanation related to the ancestral seaweed extract containing sodium alginate has been use of cactus mucilage as a lime adhesive and water- used, along with sheep wool, as a soil stabilizer in the proofing admixture (10). The lime pastes made with elaboration of a sustainable composite for the con- higher mucilage/lime ratios had an increased fracture struction industry (20). The combination of alginate resistance. Chandra et al. (11) studied the interaction (19.5% w/w) and wool (0.25% w/w) increased both between cactus mucilage and Portland cement in mor- the compressive and flexural strength, obtaining tar with a w/c ratio of 0.50. They observed improved values comparable to those obtained with Portland workability in fresh mortar containing cactus extract. cement (10% w/w). This combination has also been In hardened mortar, the compressive strength at used to improve cement hydration due to its water 1, 7, and 28 days was always lower than that of the retention capacity, which allows for a higher degree control. However, at 90 days of age, the strength was of hydration (21). 12% higher than the control. In addition, the drying Mineral admixtures are well known alternatives rate was slowed due to the water retention capacity for increasing the mechanical strength and dura- of the mucilage, and the water absorption was also bility of reinforced concrete structures. However, reduced. On a micro-structural level, they observed their use is restricted to places where they are eco- the formation of small crystallites instead of the nomically available. Based on the literature review, large crystals of calcium hydroxide commonly found cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract in hydrated cement paste. Hernandez-Zaragoza et al. have demonstrated their suitability as viscosity Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 3 enhancing admixtures for self-consolidating con- the aggregates was carried out in accordance with crete (SCC), and understanding their effect on the the standards ASTM C33 (22), ASTM C70 (23), mechanical performance and durability of ordi- ASTM C127 (24), ASTM C128 (25), ASTM C566 nary and high performance concrete is important (26), and ASTM C29 (27). for applications where SCC is not required. The objective of this work is to assess the mechanical 2.1.3. Organic admixtures performance and durability of concrete containing cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract 2.1.3.1. Cactus mucilage. A cactus mucilage solu- solutions. tion with a 0.50 °Brix (0.42% w/v) concentration was used. This solution was extracted from the 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS cladodes of Opuntia ficus índica cactus. The muci- lage is a complex carbohydrate with excellent water 2.1. Materials absorption capacity, a high molecular weight and poly-electrolyte behavior (28). The mucilage is 2.1.1. Portland cement envisaged as a potential source of hydrocolloids that could be used as a thickening agent in the pharma- Sulfate resistant ordinary Portland cement (CPO ceutical and food industry (29–31). This polymer is 30RS according to the Mexican cement denomina- a polysaccharide with arabinose, galactose, galact- tion) was used. This type of cement was selected uronic acid, rhamnose and xylose residues (32, 33). because it was the only one in the market with a low The mucilage extraction consisted of mixing strips content of mineral additions. Its chemical composi- of cactus with distilled water in a 1:1.5 (w/w) pro- tion is given in Table 1. portion at a controlled temperature of no more than 60 °C for 3 h. The obtained cactus mucilage solution 2.1.2. Fine and coarse aggregates was the result of progressive filtering through sieves No. 16 (1.18  mm), No. 100 (150  µm) and No. 200 River sand and gravel were used as fine and (74 µm). coarse aggregates, respectively. Their physical prop- erties are given in Table 2. The characterization of 2.1.3.2. Marine brown algae extract. Commercial concentrated algae dispersion from marine brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera was used. The disper- Table 1. Chemical composition sion consists of a liquid phase containing some free of CPO-30RS cement amino acids, free ions, sugars, pigments and colloi- dal polysaccharides such as alginates, laminaran, Compound % mannitol, fucoidan and proteins as well as another SiO 18.77 phase composed of ground leaves and stems. The Al O 3.69 2 3 main polysaccharide in the seaweed extract is algi- Fe O 3.97 2 3 nate (16), which represents between 25–33% of the CaO 58.77 dry weight of the algae. The extract was obtained by mixing the concentrated paste with distilled water MgO 1.58 in a 1:1 (v/v) proportion. A thermal bath at a tem- K O+Na O 0.49 2 2 perature not exceeding 50 °C was used to facilitate Fe 2.78 the filtration through a sieve No. 100 (150 µm). The MnO 0.10 concentration of the final solution was 0.50 °Brix P O 0.10 2 5 (0.42% w/v). TiO 0.17 2.2. Rheological measurements in aqueous solutions SO 2.54 containing organic admixtures PXC 5.39 Rheological measurements of cactus mucilage and seaweed extract solutions at different concentrations Table 2. Physical properties of fine and coarse aggregates were performed with a controlled-stress rheometer (Anton Paar, model Physica MCR301). A double- Property Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate gap concentric cylinder (model DG26.7-SN21085) Maximum size (mm) – 9.50 and a Peltier system (C-PTD200) were used. The Bulk density (kg/m ) 1621 1448 solutions were characterized based on their steady- Specific gravity 2.59 2.50 shear viscosity η using a unidirectional steady-shear −1 flow with shear rates ranging from 0.01 to 600 s . Water absorption (%) 2.08 2.98 The data analysis was performed using the software Fineness modulus 2.67 Rheoplus/32 version 3.0. To compare the effect of Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 4 • E.F. Hernández et al. concentration on the rheological properties, the 2.4. Concrete mix proportions data obtained from the admixtures was fit to a Herschel-Bulkley model (34) and the consistency Concrete mixes with w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 index obtained was plotted versus concentration. In were designed according to the method proposed by all of the fittings, the coefficient of determination Aïtcin and Mehta (38) and the Absolute Volumes was greater than 0.98. Additional measurements of Method of the ACI (39), respectively. The organic cactus mucilage at 1.38% with calcium hydroxide admixtures, cactus mucilage and seaweed extract (0.0156 M, 0.0312 M, 0.0625 M, 0.125 M, 0.25 M, were used in solution at a 0.50 °Brix (0.42% w/v) 0.50 M, 0.75 M and 1.00 M) were performed. For the concentration to replace the mixing water. The pro- seaweed extract solution it was not possible to make portions of the concrete mixes and their fresh state rheological measurements with different concentra- properties are shown in Table 3. tions of calcium hydroxide, because of the gelling behavior of this solution even at low concentrations 2.4.1. Preparation and curing of specimens of calcium hydroxide. Cylindrical specimens with 100 mm diameter and 2.3. Degree of hydration and pore size distribution 200 mm height were cast from each mix. The speci- mens were cast in triplicate for a total of 240  cylinders. Cement pastes with water/cement ratios (w/c) All specimens were removed from the mold after one of 0.30 and 0.60 were prepared according to the day and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. The speci- standard ASTM 305 (35). Cactus mucilage and mens with 0 days of moist curing (°C) were kept in a seaweed extract were used in solutions at 0.5%, room at ambient temperature and relative humidity. 1.0% and 1.82% (w/v) concentration to replace the The specimens moist-cured for 28 days (28 °C) were mixing water. Cylindrical specimens with 40 mm kept at 23±3 °C and 95% RH. After curing, all of the diameter and 80 mm height were cast from each specimens were stored at ambient temperature and paste and cured under moist (W) and sealed (S) relative humidity. conditions. The degree of hydration by the ignition method (36) was obtained at 28 days, 120 days and 2.5. Hardened concrete testing 1 year. The NMR measurements to determine the pore size distribution were performed on 1-year- The tests carried out included determination of old samples under sealed curing, using an Oxford compressive strength (96 cylinders), capillary water Instruments Model Maran DRX-HF 12/50 spec- absorption (48 cylinders), rapid chloride permea- trometer (Oxford Instruments, Abingdon, UK) at bility (48 cylinders), accelerated chloride diffusion 12.90 MHz. The CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom- (48  half cylinders), and accelerated carbonation Gill) (37) technique was used to obtain the trans- (48  half cylinders). The tests were undertaken at verse magnetization decay, which was in all cases later ages (60 and 120 days of age) because of the best fit to a bi-exponential decay function to deter- retarding effect on the development of mechani- mine the NMR signal amplitude and the T decay cal properties reported in the literature when using components. cactus mucilage (11, 13). Table 3. Ingredient proportions for the production of 1m concrete mix and fresh state properties a b c Concrete Mixture Control M A M-A w/c ratio 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.60 Coarse aggregate (kg) 974 860 974 860 974 860 974 860 Fine aggregate (kg) 672 797 672 797 672 797 672 797 Cement (kg) 519 345 519 345 519 345 519 345 Water (kg) 157 207 157 207 157 207 157 207 Superplasticizer (mL) 4671 4671 4671 4671 Slump (cm) 20 16.2 21 19 21 14 21 15.4 Air content (%) 1.5 1.5 1.9 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.1 Temperature (°C) 24 24.5 24.5 23.5 23.5 22 22 24 Volumetric weight (kg/m ) 2331 2260 2341 2245 2331 2227 2349 2231 M: containing cactus mucilage solution. A: containing seaweed extract solution. M-A: containing both cactus mucilage and seaweed extract solutions. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 5 2.5.1. Compressive strength accordance with the Nordtest Method NT BUILD 443 (44). After the exposure period, chloride ion The compressive strength was determined at 60 concentrations in powder extracted from layers and 120 days using an ELVEC hydraulic testing 2  mm thick were determined by chemical titration. machine with a capacity of 120 tons in accordance The effective chloride diffusion coefficient and the with the testing procedure described in the ASTM C surface concentration were obtained by adjusting the 39/C 39M standard (40). experimental data to the solution of Fick’s second law (45). 2.5.2. Capillary water absorption 2.5.4. Accelerated carbonation The specimens were cut into two halves and dried in an oven at 105 °C until a weight differ- Accelerated carbonation tests were performed ence of less than 0.5% between two measurements on 180-day-old concrete specimens in a carbonation at 24 hour intervals was obtained. Epoxy resin was chamber. The flat sides of the specimen were sealed applied only to the curved surface and kept for with epoxy resin, exposing the curved surface to 24 hours at ambient temperature to allow the resin 4.4% CO , 60%±5% RH and 23±2 °C for 120 days. to harden. The sorptivity test consisted of placing To determine the carbonation depth, a 1% alcohol- the specimens in plastic containers with supports phenolphthalein solution was sprayed on the bro- under the bottom surface to allow for the free capil- ken specimen as a pH indicator. The carbonation lary absorption of water (41). The water level was depth was reported as the average of eight readings maintained at 2–5 mm above the bottom surface of across the diameter of the cylinder and the carbon- the specimen (Figure 1). The mass gained was mea- ation coefficient was then determined. sured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, 1440 and 2880 minutes. Each time the specimen was removed 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION from the container, it was wiped with a moist cloth to remove excess water and then weighed using a 3.1. Rheological measurements in aqueous solutions digital scale with 0.01 g precision. The sorptivity containing organic admixtures was calculated with the data obtained from up to 8 h of testing where the data show a linear relation- Cactus mucilage and seaweed extract solutions ship (41). In addition, the v olume of permeable behaved like shear thinning fluids, meaning that pores was determined according to the standard their viscosity decreases as the shear rate increases. ASTM C 642 (42). In this case, the curves obtained were fitted to the Herschel-Bulkley model given by equation [1]: 2.5.3. Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) and accelerated chloride diffusion τ=τ +k*γ [1] 2.5.3.1. Rapid chloride permeability test. The rapid where τ is the yield stress (Pa), k is the consistency n −1 chlorine permeability test was performed on con- index (Pa s ), γ is the shear rate (s ), and n is the crete specimens measuring 100 mm in diameter and fluid behavior index. 50 mm in length, in accordance with the ASTM C Figure 2 shows the plots for the consistency 1202 standards (43). A PROOVE’it equipment from index and the fluid behavior index versus the extract Germann Instruments was used. 2.5.3.2. Accelerated chloride diffusion. The accel- erated chloride diffusion test was performed on 120-day-old concrete specimens after 35 days of exposure to a 16.5% sodium chloride solution, in Figure 1. Setup for the capillary water absorption test. Figure 2. Consistency index versus extract concentration. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 6 • E.F. Hernández et al. concentration. The value of k increases with increas- 3.2. Degree of hydration and pore size distribution ing extract concentration, especially with cactus muci- lage. Considering that the dynamic viscosity value of Figure 4 shows that the degree of hydration of −3 pure water is 0.89×10 Pa s (at 25 °C), the viscosity of cement pastes (w/c of 0.30) at 28 days containing the solutions containing cactus mucilage and seaweed both organic additions was higher compared to the control. In addition, the moist curing increased the extract increased 15 and 19 times, respectively, when −1 degree of hydration as expected. At 120 days and tested at a shear rate of 1 s . 1  year, only moist-cured cement pastes containing According to Bentz et  al. (46), it is possible to the organic admixtures had a higher degree of hydra- double the service life of concrete by doubling the tion with respect to the control. In Figure 5, cement viscosity of the pore solution. The use of viscosity- pastes with a w/c ratio of 0.60 containing mucilage enhancing admixtures (VEAs) may increase the vis- at 1.82% (M1.82) showed severe retardation of the cosity of the pore solution and, as a result, decrease cement hydration at the age of 28 days. This effect diffusion (47). Leon-Martinez et al. (14) obtained could be linked to adsorption of the polymers on good results employing cactus mucilage and marine the first hydrates, forming a less permeable coating brown algae extract as a substitute for commer- that delayed the formation of CSH and portlandite cial VEA in the development of self-consolidating (49). In cement pastes containing seaweed extract, concrete. Therefore, it is possible that the viscosity the degree of hydration increases with increasing of the pore solution of hardened concrete contain- concentration of the polymer. The type of curing ing these admixtures could be higher compared to had a marginal effect, indicating that the polymer those without any VEA. probably served as internal curing (21). At 120 days The pore solution from cement pastes or mortars and 1 year, the degree of hydration was similar for with w/c ratios of 0.50 has an OH concentration all concentrations. To fully understand the effect of of approximately 0.30–0.45 M (48). The equiva- − these admixtures on the hydration process, research lent value of OH from a solution of cactus muci- is in progress and the results will be published in lage (1.38% w/v) saturated with calcium hydroxide the near future. The degrees of hydration obtained is 0.25  M. Figure 3 shows that the viscosities for −1 are consistent with the results from the compressive a shear rate of 1 s are approximately 26 and strength testing (Section 3.3). Both the compressive 34  times higher for solutions containing Ca(OH) strength and the permeability of cement pastes are at 0.25 M and 1.0 M, respectively, compared to the linked to capillary porosity, which depend on the viscosity of water. Assuming these viscosities for w/c ratio and the degree of hydration (50). the pore solution, the ionic diffusion in hardened The results of the NMR studies on cement pastes, concrete should be reduced. During the formation the organic admixtures, and hydration for 1 year of the porous structure, one part of the admixture under sealed curing are shown in Figure 6. Before could be adsorbed on the surface of the pores and carrying out the testing, the samples were saturated the other remains in the pore solution. As hydra- with distilled water to reveal all of the pores present in tion reduces the amount of porosity, it is hypoth- the cement paste. The short T component is related esized that the concentration of these polymers in to small capillary pores, and the long T component the pore solution should be higher than the initial is related to large capillary pores (51); therefore, the concentration. short T amplitude/long T amplitude ratio >1 indi- 2 2 cates a higher amount of fine pores. For instance, the cement paste with a w/c of 0.30  and 0.50% organic admixtures possesses a higher amount of fine pores compared to the control. In cement pastes with a w/c of 0.60 containing cactus mucilage, the amount of fine pores with respect to the control decreases with increasing concentration of the polymer. Conversely, the seaweed extract has a higher amount of fine pores with increasing concentration of seaweed  extract, only decreasing when the concentration is 1.82%. The use of both admixtures increased the air con- tent in the fresh concrete by approximately 1% above the control (Table 3), which may play a minor role in strength and permeability. 3.3. Compressive strength Figure 7 presents the compressive strength Figure 3. Effect of the calcium hydroxide concentration results at the ages of 60 and 120 days for the con- on the viscosity of cactus mucilage (CM) dispersions at 1.38% (w/v) and pH. crete mixes studied. The organic admixtures did not Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 7 Figure 4. Degree of hydration of cement pastes with w/c ratio=0.30, a) cactus mucilage, and b) seaweed extract. S=sealed curing, W=moist curing. Figure 5. Degree of hydration of cement pastes with w/c ratio=0.60, a) cactus mucilage, and b) seaweed extract. S=sealed curing, W=moist curing. Figure 6. Amplitude of short T / Amplitude of long T ratio of cement pastes. a) w/c ratio of 0.30 and b) w/c of 0.60. 2 2 significantly affect the compressive strength com- respect to the control. This result may be linked to pared to the control, especially in the concrete mixes the water holding capacity of these admixtures that with a w/c ratio of 0.30. Only in the case of concrete make it available when needed to support further with a w/c ratio of 0.60 (Figure 7b) for zero days cement hydration (21, 52). moist curing and containing both cactus mucilage A retrogression of the concrete strength from 60 to and seaweed extract, was a slight increase (20%) 120 days was also observed, especially in the control in compressive strength at 120  days observed with mix with a w/c of 0.30, moist-cured. The specimens Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 8 • E.F. Hernández et al. Figure 7. Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 60 and 120 days old for a) w/c=0.30 and b) w/c=0.60. The error bars represent one standard deviation. that were moist-cured containing the organic admix- trend. Furthermore, the addition of cactus mucilage tures do not show a significant strength reduction, increases the setting times and significantly delays perhaps because of the water holding capacity of cement hydration (13). Therefore, higher compres- the admixtures that reduce drying shrinkage-related sive strength at only three days with respect to the tensile stresses. De Larrard and Aitcin (53) regarded control cannot be expected and it is not feasible to the strength retrogression as an effect caused by the make strong conclusions from their data. Chandra moisture gradients developed when concrete dries et al. (11) reported increases in compressive strength out in the long term generating tensile stresses on of 6% and 12% in mortar containing 50% and 100% the surface and additional compressive stresses in of cactus mucilage solution replacing the mixing the inner concrete, thus appearing as a strength water compared to the control at 90 days of age. reduction of the material. The moisture gradients Before this age, the compressive strength of concrete will be higher in low w/c ratio concrete that has a containing cactus mucilage was always lower than lower permeability, and therefore, the strength retro- the control. gression will be higher. The results from the present study are contrary 3.4. Capillary water absorption to those obtained by Hernandez-Zaragoza et  al. (12) who used lyophilized cactus gum in Portland Figure 8 presents the sorptivity and the perme- cement mortar with a w/c ratio of 0.60. They claim able porosity results of concretes with a w/c of 0.30. to have increased compressive strength by up to 65% Figure 8a shows that mixes containing cactus muci- at three days compared to the control. The behav- lage and seaweed extract have slightly lower sorp- ior observed by those authors is not clear because tivity values than the control. The combination of the compressive strength reported increases and cactus mucilage and seaweed extract did not influ- decreases in an alternating fashion with increas- ence sorptivity. The reduction in water absorption ing cactus gum concentration without any definite is explained by the lower permeable porosity shown Figure 8. a) Sorptivity and b) Volume of permeable porosity of concrete with w/c ratio=0.30 and 120 days old. The error bars indicate one standard deviation. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 9 capillary water absorption of concrete with w/c ratios of 0.30 that were moist-cured for 0 and seven days. Figure 10 shows the sorptivity and permeable porosity of the concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60. In this case, concretes containing organic admixtures, especially concrete containing seaweed extract, have higher sorptivity values than those of the con- trol. Again, the type of curing did not have any significant effect on the results. The higher water absorption capacity of the concretes with organic admixtures is associated with the presence of non- Figure 9. Microphotograph of 2 years old concrete, w/c polar protein segments, which make these admix- ratio=0.30 containing seaweed extract. Magnification 15000X. tures act as air entraining agents that increase the porosity compared to the control mix (Figure 10b) (11). This effect is exacerbated in this mix because of in Figure 8b. Changes in the pore size distribution the higher polymer/cement ratio compared to con- in cement pastes containing the organic additions, crete with a w/c ratio of 0.30. as indicated by the NMR results shown in Figure 6, where the short T component is related to small cap- 3.5. Rapid chloride permeability and accelerated illary pores and the long T component is related to chloride diffusion large capillary pores (51). Hughes (54) proposes an equation that considers the capillary flow as directly 3.5.1. Rapid chloride permeability linked to the pore radius and the tortuosity of the system. Therefore, in a system of finer pores and The effect of organic admixtures on the rapid higher tortuosity, the capillary flow should be lower chloride permeability test in concretes with a w/c compared to systems of larger and more connected ratio of 0.30 and 0.60 is illustrated in Figure 11. In pores. Chandra et al. (11) suggests that the reduction concrete with a w/c ratio of 0.30 (Figure 11a), the in water absorption when cactus mucilage is added charge passed was reduced in concretes containing to mortars is because a film formed by the admixture organic admixtures compared to the control for and the calcium complexes formed during the inter- both types of curing and at both testing ages. At action between the cactus mucilage and the divalent 120 days of age, the values of the charge passed in calcium ions, seals the pores. Similarly, the alginate the control sample, in accordance with the ASTM found in the seaweed extract, reacts with calcium C 1202 standard, correspond to moderate chloride ions to form spheres of calcium alginate (Figure 9). permeability concrete, whereas concretes containing Other studies have shown similar morphology of organic admixtures correspond to low permeability the calcium alginate spheres (19). Furthermore, the concretes. In general, the trend seems to follow the type of curing had no significant effect. These results permeable porosity (Figure 8b), which was affected are in agreement with those reported by Ramírez- by the possible formation of complexes of calcium Arellanes et al. (13) and Caballero (55), which indi- and the reduction of the size of calcium hydroxide cated that the use of cactus mucilage reduces the crystals (11) as well as by the formation of small Figure 10. a) Sorptivity and b) Volume of permeable porosity of concrete with w/c ratio=0.60, 120 days old. The error bars indicate one standard deviation. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 10 • E.F. Hernández et al. Figure 11. Charge passed (Coulombs) in concrete specimens at 60 and 120 days old, a) w/c ratio=0.30 and b) w/c ratio=0.60. The error bars indicate one standard deviation. spheres of calcium alginate (Figure 9) when the sea- This may be explained by taking into account that weed extract containing alginic acid reacts with cal- admixtures in concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30 did cium ions (19), thus reducing the permeable porosity. not have as significant of an effect on the compres- In contrast, at 60 days of age, concretes with a sive strength as they did on the rapid chloride perme- w/c ratio of 0.60 containing the organic admixtures ability test. Conversely, the admixtures had an effect had a higher charge passed compared to the con- on both the compressive strength and the chloride trol (Figure 11b). At 120 days, the charge passed is ion permeability of concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60. reduced only in specimens containing both cactus mucilage and seaweed extract. Other specimens had 3.5.2. Accelerated chloride ion diffusion similar performance to the control. The permeabil- ity to chloride ions in all of the mixes at both testing The results of the accelerated chloride diffusion ages and types of curing is considered high in accor- tests in concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30 and 0.60 dance to the ASTM C 1202 standard. are presented in Figure 13. Concretes with a w/c Figure 12 indicates a linear relationship between ratio of 0.30 (Figure 13a) containing organic admix- the charge passed from the rapid chloride perme- tures, especially cactus mucilage, had lower diffusion ability test and the compressive strength of concretes coefficients compared to the control. Figure 13b with w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 at 120 days old. In (concrete with a w/c of 0.60) also indicates lower both cases, high values of compressive strength cor- chloride ion diffusion coefficients in mixes contain- respond to low values of charge passed, and vice ing the organic admixtures compared to the control. versa. In concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30, the deter- In this case, concretes containing cactus mucilage/ mination coefficients (r ) were lower compared to seaweed extract exhibited the lowest values. For those obtained in concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60. both w/c ratios the curing had no significant effect on the results. In concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30 containing the admixtures, the reduction in the diffusion coef- ficients suggests that they are less permeable than the control, as further indicated by the capillary absorption and porosity results. In concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60 containing organic admixtures, the reduction in the diffusion coefficients can be attributed to the increased viscosity of the pore solution caused by the presence of polysaccharides with high molecular weight in these admixtures. In these concretes, the viscosity of the pore solution should be increased by a higher amount of poly- saccharides compared to the concrete with a w/c ratio of 0.30. The Stokes-Einstein equation establishes an inverse relation between the diffusion coefficient and the vis- Figure 12. Relationship between the charge passed cosity of the solution. The presence of molecules and the compressive strength of concretes w/c ratio=0.30 and 0.60, at 120 days of age. that interact with water and increase its viscosity can Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 11 Figure 13. Diffusion coefficients of Cl in concrete at 120 days, a) w/c ratio=0.30 and b) w/c ratio=0.60. The error bars represent one standard deviation. also serve as physical barriers that reduce the dif- 3.6. Carbonation fusion coefficient (47). Using the experimental dif- fusion coefficients for the concretes studied, the Figure 14a shows the carbonation results of con- apparent viscosity of the pore solution was then cretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30. Mixes containing cac- calculated. For instance, the concrete with a w/c tus mucilage and seaweed extract and moist-cured ratio of 0.30 containing cactus mucilage had a for 0 days exhibit reduced carbonation front with −6 2 chloride diffusion coefficient of 4.93×10 mm /s, respect to both the control and the combination of and the concrete containing seaweed extract had a mucilage and seaweed extract. This combination of −6 2 diffusion coefficient of 5.81×10 mm /s. The calcu- cactus mucilage and seaweed extract had an adverse lated apparent viscosities of the pore solution are effect, increasing the carbonation front even with 284 cP and 241 cP, respectively. These values of vis- respect to the control. These results are related to the cosity are in the same order of magnitude as those lower porosity and lower sorptivity of these mixes determined experimentally by Poinot et  al. (56), (see the Capillary water absorption section). In the who extracted pore solution from mortars contain- case of mixes moist-cured for 28 days, those contain- ing viscosity-enhancing admixtures. Performing the ing only seaweed extract showed carbona tion. This same calculation to obtain the viscosity of the pore could be because the alginate in the seaweed extract solution in concrete without any organic admix- forms insoluble chemical compounds with divalent 2+ tures gives a value of approximately 163 cP; for the ions such as Ca (19). This reduces the availability concrete with a w/c of 0.60, it is estimated as 23 cP. of Ca(OH) necessary for the formation of CaCO 2 3, Trachtenberg and Mayer (52) obtained values of allowing for the increased penetration of CO reduced viscosity 250 times higher than that of water In concrete with a w/c ratio of 0.60 (Figure 14b) from a cactus mucilage solution containing 1 M of and moist-cured for 0 days, the highest reduction in CaCl in water and an acid solution. In an alka- the carbonation front was obtained in mixes con- line cactus mucilage solution (pH 9.8) containing taining cactus mucilage and those containing a com- 0.1 M CaCl , increases in viscosity up to 750 times bination of cactus mucilage and seaweed extract. higher than water were observed. These calcula- In concretes containing only seaweed extract, the tions suggest that it is possible that the viscosity of carbonation depth was comparable to that of the a pore solution containing the organic admixtures control. The same performance occurred in con- may contribute to an approximately 42%  reduc- cretes that were moist-cured for 28 days. The cur- tion in the diffusion coefficient, which is consistent ing significantly affected the control mix and the with the results shown in Figure 13. The same cal- mixes containing seaweed extract. An explanation culations were performed in concretes with a w/c for the lower carbonation depth observed when cac- ratio of 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and sea- tus mucilage is used, may be linked to its capacity weed extract. The chloride ion diffusion coefficients to retain water and to form calcium complexes with −5 2 −5 2 were 3.49×10 mm /s and 2.63×10 mm /s for the calcium hydroxide (11). In the first case, the higher concrete mixes containing cactus mucilage and sea- water content permits dissolution of Ca(OH) that weed extract, respectively. The apparent viscosities reacts with CO to form more CaCO , whereas the 2 3 are estimated as 40 cP and 53 cP, respectively, and calcium complexes formed may act like pore sealants the reduction of the chloride diffusion coefficient is that reduce the permeability to CO . Studies with approximately 56%. lime mortar have shown the opposite performance, Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 12 • E.F. Hernández et al. Figure 14. Carbonation depth in concrete at 180 days, a) w/c ratio=0.30 and b) w/c ratio=0.60. The error bars represent one standard deviation. where cactus mucilage increased the carbonation hydration because there was already enough depth with respect to the control (57). water for hydration, and the porosity increased as To calculate the carbonation coefficient that a result of the retardation effect on cement hydra- would be obtained under normal ambient condi- tion and the subsequent drying. Those changes tions, based on the carbonation coefficient obtained in porosity marginally affected compressive in the accelerated test of this investigation, equation strength, being the most noticeable in concrete [2] was used (58): with a w/c ratio of 0.60 and 0 days moist-cured, where the combination of cactus mucilage and K C1 acc acc seaweed extract increased the strength at 120 days [2] by 20% with respect to the control. K C 2 amb amb 2. Regarding durability, the capillary water absorp- where tion and the rapid chloride permeability were K =accelerated test carbonation coefficient acc marginally influenced by the permeable poros- 1/2 (mm/days ) ity produced by the use of the admixtures, being 1/2 K =ambient carbonation coefficient (mm/days ) amb lower in concrete with a low w/c ratio and higher C1 =concentration of CO in accelerated test (4.40%) acc 2 C2 =ambient CO concentration (0.04%). amb 2 Table 4. Prediction of time required to carbonate 25.4 mm (1 in.) of concrete Table 4 shows the time required to reach a car- bonation front at a 25 mm reinforcement level for 1/2 1/2 Mixture K (mm/days ) K (mm/days ) Years acc amb each mix type. The results obtained in concretes 06-0CC 3.07 0.29 20.0 containing cactus mucilage with a w/c ratio of 0.60 06-0CM 2.19 0.21 39.38 showed significant increases in time. In the case of concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30, the carbonation 06-0CA 3.17 0.30 18.72 front will not reach the reinforcing steel in a lifespan 06-0CMA 2.21 0.21 38.70 of 60 years. 06-28CC 2.34 0.22 34.42 06-28CM 1.94 0.18 50.25 4. CONCLUSIONS 06-28CA 2.59 0.25 27.99 06-28CMA 1.88 0.18 53.13 Based on the results of this experimental research, the following conclusions are drawn: 03-0CC 0.33 0.03 >60 1. Addition of cactus mucilage and seaweed extract 03-0CM 0.05 0.00 >60 to concrete produced distinct effects on the 03-0CA 0.19 0.02 >60 mechanical properties and durability depend- 03-0CMA 0.52 0.05 >60 ing on the water to cement ratio. In the case of a 03-28CC – – >60 low w/c ratio, the permeable porosity decreased because of the water holding capacity of the 03-28CM – – >60 polymers, which provided additional moisture for 03-28CA 0.05 0.00 >60 further cement hydration. In concrete with high 03-28CMA – – >60 w/c ratio, the additional water did not improve Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 13 cactus gum. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 1 [3], in concrete with a high w/c ratio, compared to 175–177. the control mixes. The chloride ion diffusion 13. Ramírez-Arellanes, S.; Cano-Barrita, P.F. de J.; Julián- coefficients were clearly reduced by the use of the Caballero, F.; and Gómez-Yañez, C. (2012) Concrete durabil- cactus mucilage and seaweed extract in both w/c ity properties and microstructural analysis of cement paste with nopal cactus mucilage as a natural additive. Mater. ratios and curing types compared to the control Construcc. 62 [302], 327–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc. mix. Combinations of the lower porosity and/ 2012.00211. or changes in the properties of the pore solu- 14. Leon-Martinez F.; Cano-Barrita P.F.J.; Lagunez-Rivera L.; Medina-Torres L. (2014) Study of nopal mucilage and marine tion (viscosity) could explain these results. The brown algae extract as viscosity enhancing admixtures for carbonation depth was decreased in concrete cement based materials. Construct. Build. Mat. 53 [2], 190–202. containing cactus mucilage compared to the con- http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.068. trol mixes as a result of the decreased permeable 15. Torres-Acosta A.A.; Martínez-Molina W.; Alonso-Guzmán E.M. (2012) State of the Art on Cactus Additions in Alkaline porosity and increased viscosity. Media as Corrosion Inhibitors. International Journal of Corrosion. Article ID 646142, 9 pages, http://dx.doi.org/ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 10.1155/2012/646142. 16. Fischer, F.G.; Dorfel, H. (1955) Polyuronic acids in brown algae. Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift fur physiologische Chemie. Prisciliano Cano would like to thank the Consejo 302 [4–6], 186–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bchm2.1955. Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (Conacyt) of 302.1-2.186. Mexico for funding the project ID code CB 103763, 17. Haug, A.; Smidsrød, O. (1965) Fractionation of alginates by precipitation with calcium and magnesium ions. Acta Chem. and the SIP of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional of Scand. 19, 1221–1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem. Mexico for funding the project ID code 20140613. scand.19-1221. Eddisson Francisco Hernandez would like to thank 18. Reyes-Tisnado, R.; Hernández-Carmona, G.; López- Gutiérrez, F.; Vernon-Carter, E.J.; Castro-Moyoroqui, P. CONACYT for his PhD scholarship and IPN for (2004) Sodium and Potassium alginates extracted from the PIFI scholarship. The authors acknowledge Macrocystis Pyrifera algae for use in dental impression M. Sc. Frank Manuel León-Martinez for useful dis- materials. Cienc. Mar. 30 [01B], 189–199. Online at http:// cussions on the rheology of aqueous solutions and www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=48003004. 19. Pathak, T.S.; Yun, J-H.; Lee, J.; Paeng, K-J. (2010) Effect of cement pastes. calcium ion (cross-linker) concentration on porosity, surface morphology and thermal behavior of calcium alginates REFERENCES prepared from algae (Undaria pinnatífida). 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(2007) Carbonation rates of ASTM Standard C1202-97: Standard Test Method for concretes containing high volume of pozzolanic ma terials. Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Cem. Concr. Res. 37 [12], 1647–1653. http://dx.doi.org/ Chloride Ion Penetration, West Conshohocken, PA, 6. 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.08.014 Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Materiales de Construcción Unpaywall

Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete

Materiales de ConstrucciónJan 15, 2016

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Mterialesa de CuCC onstr ión Vol. 66, Issue 321, January–March 2016, e074 ISSN-L: 0465-2746 http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete a a, b E.F. Hernández , P.F. de J. Cano-Barrita *, A.A. Torres-Acosta a. Instituto Politécnico Nacional/CIIDIR Unidad Oaxaca, (Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, Oaxaca, México) b. Universidad Marista de Querétaro, (Querétaro, México) *[email protected] Received 28 october 2014 Accepted 3 June 2015 Available on line 15 january 2016 ABSTRACT: This paper presents the mechanical performance and durability of concrete with water/cement (w/c) ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and brown marine seaweed extract solutions (at 0.5° Brix concentrations). Cylindrical specimens (100 mm×200 mm) were cast and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. Compressive strength, rapid chloride permeability, and chloride diffusion tests were conducted to evaluate all of the concrete mixes at the ages of 60 and 120 days. In addition, accelerated carbonation tests were carried out on specimens at the age of 180 days by exposure to 23 °C, 60% RH and at 4.4% CO for 120 days. The compres- sive strength results showed that only one concrete mix with admixtures increased in strength compared to the control. Regarding the rapid chloride permeability, chloride diffusion and carbonation, the results indicated that the durability of concretes containing organic additions was enhanced compared to the control. KEYWORDS: Concrete; Organic admixtures; Compressive strength; Chloride; Durability Citation/Citar como: Hernández, E.F.; de Cano-Barrita, P.F. de J.; Torres-Acosta, A.A. (2016) Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete. Mater. Construcc. 66 [321], e074. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514. RESUMEN: Influencia del mucílago de cactus y extracto de algas pardas marinas en la resistencia a compresión y durabilidad del hormigón. Este trabajo presenta el comportamiento mecánico y de durabilidad de concretos con relaciones agua/cemento de 0.30 y 0.60, conteniendo soluciones de mucílago de nopal y extracto de algas marinas cafés (0.5 °Brix de concentración). Especímenes cilíndricos (100 mm×200 mm) fueron elaborados y curados en húmedo por 0 y 28 días. Se evaluó la resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad rápida y difusión de cloruros a los 60 y 120 días de edad. Adicionalmente, se realizaron pruebas de carbonatación acelerada en especímenes con 180 días de edad, expuestos a 23 °C, 60% HR y 4.4% de CO por 120 días. Los resultados de resistencia a la compresión muestran que únicamente una mezcla de concreto con adición orgánica incrementó su resistencia con respecto al control. Con respecto a la permeabilidad rápida a cloruros, difusión de cloruros y carbonatación, los resultados indican que la durabilidad de los concretos que contenían adiciones orgánicas fue mejorada con respecto al control. PALABRAS CLAVE: Hormigón; Aditivos orgánicos; Resistencia a la compresión; Cloruros; Durabilidad Copyright: © 2016 CSIC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial (by-nc) Spain 3.0 License. 2 • E.F. Hernández et al. 1. INTRODUCTION (12) studied Portland cement mortar with a w/c ratio of 0.60 containing lyophilized cactus gum. Their Premature deterioration of reinforced concrete results indicated a 65% compressive strength increase structures represents a serious durability problem. with respect to the control mortar at only three days Understanding the factors that affect the durabil- of age, which is contrary to other studies in which ity of concrete proves useful in proposing solutions the addition of cactus mucilage extended the set- to improve the performance. One of the primary ting times and also negatively affected the compres- causes of deterioration is the corrosion of the rein- sive strength gain at early ages as well as at 28 days forcing steel embedded in concrete (1). Steel corro- (11, 13). Moreover, their results fail to provide a clear sion in reinforced concrete structures is mainly due trend for either increasing or decreasing compressive to the ingress of chloride ions and carbonation of strength with increasing lyophilized cactus gum con- the concrete cover. The high alkalinity of concrete centration. Ramírez et al. (13) used a cactus mucilage (pH≈13) forms an oxide protective layer around the solution to investigate its effects on the properties of steel rebars that is lost when carbonation decreases concrete in a fresh state, on durability in a hardened the pH below 9 or with the entry of chloride ions or state, and on the micro-structural changes in cement under both scenarios (2, 3). As such, the durabil- paste. The viscosity and setting times of the cement ity of a reinforced concrete structure is dependent paste increased with the use of a cactus mucilage on the concrete’s resistance to the penetration of solution. In the microstructure, the formation of aggressive agents (4, 5). calcium hydroxide crystals was not observed. X-ray High performance concrete (HPC) was devel- diffraction analysis also showed the retardant effect oped in response to known durability problems in on the hydration process. Regarding durability, the reinforced concrete structures exposed to a harsh capillary water uptake and the chloride diffusion environment. HPC is characterized by its low water/ coefficients decreased. León-Martínez et al. (14) suc- cementitious materials ratio and by the use of cessfully used cactus mucilage and marine brown chemical and mineral admixtures to reduce perme- algae extract as a viscosity-enhancing admixture ability and increase durability (6). Various protec- for self-consolidating concrete. Torres-Acosta (15) tive methods such as corrosion inhibitors, cathodic evaluated the effect of two dehydrated cacti (Opuntia protection, epoxy and metallic coatings have also ficus indica and Aloe Vera) as corrosion inhibitors in been applied to decrease steel corrosion (7). HPC alkaline media. Their results showed good corrosion may have a moderate cost increase with respect to inhibiting effect on reinforcing steel when chloride ordinary concrete owing to the use of chemical and ions were present, especially when dehydrated nopal mineral admixtures. Similarly, while corrosion pro- was used at 1% and 2% by mass. tection methods increase the time for corrosion ini- Alginate, a salt deriving from the alginic acid tiation, some increase the ultimate cost of concrete obtained from marine brown algae, is another type and are not environmentally friendly (8, 9). of organic admixture that has been used to improve The addition of organic materials has been the the performance of construction materials. Alginate focus of several studies as a sustainable alternative is a polysaccharide composed of a binary non- to improve the mechanical properties and durabil- branched co-polymer from mannuronic (M) and ity of cement-based materials. One such admixture α-L guluronic (G) acids (16, 17). These hydrocol- is cactus mucilage, which has previously been used loids have the capacity to gel through interaction in lime mortars, with the aim of providing a prelimi- with carboxylic groups and divalent ions (18, 19). A nary scientific explanation related to the ancestral seaweed extract containing sodium alginate has been use of cactus mucilage as a lime adhesive and water- used, along with sheep wool, as a soil stabilizer in the proofing admixture (10). The lime pastes made with elaboration of a sustainable composite for the con- higher mucilage/lime ratios had an increased fracture struction industry (20). The combination of alginate resistance. Chandra et al. (11) studied the interaction (19.5% w/w) and wool (0.25% w/w) increased both between cactus mucilage and Portland cement in mor- the compressive and flexural strength, obtaining tar with a w/c ratio of 0.50. They observed improved values comparable to those obtained with Portland workability in fresh mortar containing cactus extract. cement (10% w/w). This combination has also been In hardened mortar, the compressive strength at used to improve cement hydration due to its water 1, 7, and 28 days was always lower than that of the retention capacity, which allows for a higher degree control. However, at 90 days of age, the strength was of hydration (21). 12% higher than the control. In addition, the drying Mineral admixtures are well known alternatives rate was slowed due to the water retention capacity for increasing the mechanical strength and dura- of the mucilage, and the water absorption was also bility of reinforced concrete structures. However, reduced. On a micro-structural level, they observed their use is restricted to places where they are eco- the formation of small crystallites instead of the nomically available. Based on the literature review, large crystals of calcium hydroxide commonly found cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract in hydrated cement paste. Hernandez-Zaragoza et al. have demonstrated their suitability as viscosity Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 3 enhancing admixtures for self-consolidating con- the aggregates was carried out in accordance with crete (SCC), and understanding their effect on the the standards ASTM C33 (22), ASTM C70 (23), mechanical performance and durability of ordi- ASTM C127 (24), ASTM C128 (25), ASTM C566 nary and high performance concrete is important (26), and ASTM C29 (27). for applications where SCC is not required. The objective of this work is to assess the mechanical 2.1.3. Organic admixtures performance and durability of concrete containing cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract 2.1.3.1. Cactus mucilage. A cactus mucilage solu- solutions. tion with a 0.50 °Brix (0.42% w/v) concentration was used. This solution was extracted from the 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS cladodes of Opuntia ficus índica cactus. The muci- lage is a complex carbohydrate with excellent water 2.1. Materials absorption capacity, a high molecular weight and poly-electrolyte behavior (28). The mucilage is 2.1.1. Portland cement envisaged as a potential source of hydrocolloids that could be used as a thickening agent in the pharma- Sulfate resistant ordinary Portland cement (CPO ceutical and food industry (29–31). This polymer is 30RS according to the Mexican cement denomina- a polysaccharide with arabinose, galactose, galact- tion) was used. This type of cement was selected uronic acid, rhamnose and xylose residues (32, 33). because it was the only one in the market with a low The mucilage extraction consisted of mixing strips content of mineral additions. Its chemical composi- of cactus with distilled water in a 1:1.5 (w/w) pro- tion is given in Table 1. portion at a controlled temperature of no more than 60 °C for 3 h. The obtained cactus mucilage solution 2.1.2. Fine and coarse aggregates was the result of progressive filtering through sieves No. 16 (1.18  mm), No. 100 (150  µm) and No. 200 River sand and gravel were used as fine and (74 µm). coarse aggregates, respectively. Their physical prop- erties are given in Table 2. The characterization of 2.1.3.2. Marine brown algae extract. Commercial concentrated algae dispersion from marine brown algae Macrocystis pyrifera was used. The disper- Table 1. Chemical composition sion consists of a liquid phase containing some free of CPO-30RS cement amino acids, free ions, sugars, pigments and colloi- dal polysaccharides such as alginates, laminaran, Compound % mannitol, fucoidan and proteins as well as another SiO 18.77 phase composed of ground leaves and stems. The Al O 3.69 2 3 main polysaccharide in the seaweed extract is algi- Fe O 3.97 2 3 nate (16), which represents between 25–33% of the CaO 58.77 dry weight of the algae. The extract was obtained by mixing the concentrated paste with distilled water MgO 1.58 in a 1:1 (v/v) proportion. A thermal bath at a tem- K O+Na O 0.49 2 2 perature not exceeding 50 °C was used to facilitate Fe 2.78 the filtration through a sieve No. 100 (150 µm). The MnO 0.10 concentration of the final solution was 0.50 °Brix P O 0.10 2 5 (0.42% w/v). TiO 0.17 2.2. Rheological measurements in aqueous solutions SO 2.54 containing organic admixtures PXC 5.39 Rheological measurements of cactus mucilage and seaweed extract solutions at different concentrations Table 2. Physical properties of fine and coarse aggregates were performed with a controlled-stress rheometer (Anton Paar, model Physica MCR301). A double- Property Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate gap concentric cylinder (model DG26.7-SN21085) Maximum size (mm) – 9.50 and a Peltier system (C-PTD200) were used. The Bulk density (kg/m ) 1621 1448 solutions were characterized based on their steady- Specific gravity 2.59 2.50 shear viscosity η using a unidirectional steady-shear −1 flow with shear rates ranging from 0.01 to 600 s . Water absorption (%) 2.08 2.98 The data analysis was performed using the software Fineness modulus 2.67 Rheoplus/32 version 3.0. To compare the effect of Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 4 • E.F. Hernández et al. concentration on the rheological properties, the 2.4. Concrete mix proportions data obtained from the admixtures was fit to a Herschel-Bulkley model (34) and the consistency Concrete mixes with w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 index obtained was plotted versus concentration. In were designed according to the method proposed by all of the fittings, the coefficient of determination Aïtcin and Mehta (38) and the Absolute Volumes was greater than 0.98. Additional measurements of Method of the ACI (39), respectively. The organic cactus mucilage at 1.38% with calcium hydroxide admixtures, cactus mucilage and seaweed extract (0.0156 M, 0.0312 M, 0.0625 M, 0.125 M, 0.25 M, were used in solution at a 0.50 °Brix (0.42% w/v) 0.50 M, 0.75 M and 1.00 M) were performed. For the concentration to replace the mixing water. The pro- seaweed extract solution it was not possible to make portions of the concrete mixes and their fresh state rheological measurements with different concentra- properties are shown in Table 3. tions of calcium hydroxide, because of the gelling behavior of this solution even at low concentrations 2.4.1. Preparation and curing of specimens of calcium hydroxide. Cylindrical specimens with 100 mm diameter and 2.3. Degree of hydration and pore size distribution 200 mm height were cast from each mix. The speci- mens were cast in triplicate for a total of 240  cylinders. Cement pastes with water/cement ratios (w/c) All specimens were removed from the mold after one of 0.30 and 0.60 were prepared according to the day and moist-cured for 0 and 28 days. The speci- standard ASTM 305 (35). Cactus mucilage and mens with 0 days of moist curing (°C) were kept in a seaweed extract were used in solutions at 0.5%, room at ambient temperature and relative humidity. 1.0% and 1.82% (w/v) concentration to replace the The specimens moist-cured for 28 days (28 °C) were mixing water. Cylindrical specimens with 40 mm kept at 23±3 °C and 95% RH. After curing, all of the diameter and 80 mm height were cast from each specimens were stored at ambient temperature and paste and cured under moist (W) and sealed (S) relative humidity. conditions. The degree of hydration by the ignition method (36) was obtained at 28 days, 120 days and 2.5. Hardened concrete testing 1 year. The NMR measurements to determine the pore size distribution were performed on 1-year- The tests carried out included determination of old samples under sealed curing, using an Oxford compressive strength (96 cylinders), capillary water Instruments Model Maran DRX-HF 12/50 spec- absorption (48 cylinders), rapid chloride permea- trometer (Oxford Instruments, Abingdon, UK) at bility (48 cylinders), accelerated chloride diffusion 12.90 MHz. The CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom- (48  half cylinders), and accelerated carbonation Gill) (37) technique was used to obtain the trans- (48  half cylinders). The tests were undertaken at verse magnetization decay, which was in all cases later ages (60 and 120 days of age) because of the best fit to a bi-exponential decay function to deter- retarding effect on the development of mechani- mine the NMR signal amplitude and the T decay cal properties reported in the literature when using components. cactus mucilage (11, 13). Table 3. Ingredient proportions for the production of 1m concrete mix and fresh state properties a b c Concrete Mixture Control M A M-A w/c ratio 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.60 0.30 0.60 Coarse aggregate (kg) 974 860 974 860 974 860 974 860 Fine aggregate (kg) 672 797 672 797 672 797 672 797 Cement (kg) 519 345 519 345 519 345 519 345 Water (kg) 157 207 157 207 157 207 157 207 Superplasticizer (mL) 4671 4671 4671 4671 Slump (cm) 20 16.2 21 19 21 14 21 15.4 Air content (%) 1.5 1.5 1.9 2.4 2.3 2.5 2.1 2.1 Temperature (°C) 24 24.5 24.5 23.5 23.5 22 22 24 Volumetric weight (kg/m ) 2331 2260 2341 2245 2331 2227 2349 2231 M: containing cactus mucilage solution. A: containing seaweed extract solution. M-A: containing both cactus mucilage and seaweed extract solutions. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 5 2.5.1. Compressive strength accordance with the Nordtest Method NT BUILD 443 (44). After the exposure period, chloride ion The compressive strength was determined at 60 concentrations in powder extracted from layers and 120 days using an ELVEC hydraulic testing 2  mm thick were determined by chemical titration. machine with a capacity of 120 tons in accordance The effective chloride diffusion coefficient and the with the testing procedure described in the ASTM C surface concentration were obtained by adjusting the 39/C 39M standard (40). experimental data to the solution of Fick’s second law (45). 2.5.2. Capillary water absorption 2.5.4. Accelerated carbonation The specimens were cut into two halves and dried in an oven at 105 °C until a weight differ- Accelerated carbonation tests were performed ence of less than 0.5% between two measurements on 180-day-old concrete specimens in a carbonation at 24 hour intervals was obtained. Epoxy resin was chamber. The flat sides of the specimen were sealed applied only to the curved surface and kept for with epoxy resin, exposing the curved surface to 24 hours at ambient temperature to allow the resin 4.4% CO , 60%±5% RH and 23±2 °C for 120 days. to harden. The sorptivity test consisted of placing To determine the carbonation depth, a 1% alcohol- the specimens in plastic containers with supports phenolphthalein solution was sprayed on the bro- under the bottom surface to allow for the free capil- ken specimen as a pH indicator. The carbonation lary absorption of water (41). The water level was depth was reported as the average of eight readings maintained at 2–5 mm above the bottom surface of across the diameter of the cylinder and the carbon- the specimen (Figure 1). The mass gained was mea- ation coefficient was then determined. sured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, 1440 and 2880 minutes. Each time the specimen was removed 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION from the container, it was wiped with a moist cloth to remove excess water and then weighed using a 3.1. Rheological measurements in aqueous solutions digital scale with 0.01 g precision. The sorptivity containing organic admixtures was calculated with the data obtained from up to 8 h of testing where the data show a linear relation- Cactus mucilage and seaweed extract solutions ship (41). In addition, the v olume of permeable behaved like shear thinning fluids, meaning that pores was determined according to the standard their viscosity decreases as the shear rate increases. ASTM C 642 (42). In this case, the curves obtained were fitted to the Herschel-Bulkley model given by equation [1]: 2.5.3. Rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT) and accelerated chloride diffusion τ=τ +k*γ [1] 2.5.3.1. Rapid chloride permeability test. The rapid where τ is the yield stress (Pa), k is the consistency n −1 chlorine permeability test was performed on con- index (Pa s ), γ is the shear rate (s ), and n is the crete specimens measuring 100 mm in diameter and fluid behavior index. 50 mm in length, in accordance with the ASTM C Figure 2 shows the plots for the consistency 1202 standards (43). A PROOVE’it equipment from index and the fluid behavior index versus the extract Germann Instruments was used. 2.5.3.2. Accelerated chloride diffusion. The accel- erated chloride diffusion test was performed on 120-day-old concrete specimens after 35 days of exposure to a 16.5% sodium chloride solution, in Figure 1. Setup for the capillary water absorption test. Figure 2. Consistency index versus extract concentration. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 6 • E.F. Hernández et al. concentration. The value of k increases with increas- 3.2. Degree of hydration and pore size distribution ing extract concentration, especially with cactus muci- lage. Considering that the dynamic viscosity value of Figure 4 shows that the degree of hydration of −3 pure water is 0.89×10 Pa s (at 25 °C), the viscosity of cement pastes (w/c of 0.30) at 28 days containing the solutions containing cactus mucilage and seaweed both organic additions was higher compared to the control. In addition, the moist curing increased the extract increased 15 and 19 times, respectively, when −1 degree of hydration as expected. At 120 days and tested at a shear rate of 1 s . 1  year, only moist-cured cement pastes containing According to Bentz et  al. (46), it is possible to the organic admixtures had a higher degree of hydra- double the service life of concrete by doubling the tion with respect to the control. In Figure 5, cement viscosity of the pore solution. The use of viscosity- pastes with a w/c ratio of 0.60 containing mucilage enhancing admixtures (VEAs) may increase the vis- at 1.82% (M1.82) showed severe retardation of the cosity of the pore solution and, as a result, decrease cement hydration at the age of 28 days. This effect diffusion (47). Leon-Martinez et al. (14) obtained could be linked to adsorption of the polymers on good results employing cactus mucilage and marine the first hydrates, forming a less permeable coating brown algae extract as a substitute for commer- that delayed the formation of CSH and portlandite cial VEA in the development of self-consolidating (49). In cement pastes containing seaweed extract, concrete. Therefore, it is possible that the viscosity the degree of hydration increases with increasing of the pore solution of hardened concrete contain- concentration of the polymer. The type of curing ing these admixtures could be higher compared to had a marginal effect, indicating that the polymer those without any VEA. probably served as internal curing (21). At 120 days The pore solution from cement pastes or mortars and 1 year, the degree of hydration was similar for with w/c ratios of 0.50 has an OH concentration all concentrations. To fully understand the effect of of approximately 0.30–0.45 M (48). The equiva- − these admixtures on the hydration process, research lent value of OH from a solution of cactus muci- is in progress and the results will be published in lage (1.38% w/v) saturated with calcium hydroxide the near future. The degrees of hydration obtained is 0.25  M. Figure 3 shows that the viscosities for −1 are consistent with the results from the compressive a shear rate of 1 s are approximately 26 and strength testing (Section 3.3). Both the compressive 34  times higher for solutions containing Ca(OH) strength and the permeability of cement pastes are at 0.25 M and 1.0 M, respectively, compared to the linked to capillary porosity, which depend on the viscosity of water. Assuming these viscosities for w/c ratio and the degree of hydration (50). the pore solution, the ionic diffusion in hardened The results of the NMR studies on cement pastes, concrete should be reduced. During the formation the organic admixtures, and hydration for 1 year of the porous structure, one part of the admixture under sealed curing are shown in Figure 6. Before could be adsorbed on the surface of the pores and carrying out the testing, the samples were saturated the other remains in the pore solution. As hydra- with distilled water to reveal all of the pores present in tion reduces the amount of porosity, it is hypoth- the cement paste. The short T component is related esized that the concentration of these polymers in to small capillary pores, and the long T component the pore solution should be higher than the initial is related to large capillary pores (51); therefore, the concentration. short T amplitude/long T amplitude ratio >1 indi- 2 2 cates a higher amount of fine pores. For instance, the cement paste with a w/c of 0.30  and 0.50% organic admixtures possesses a higher amount of fine pores compared to the control. In cement pastes with a w/c of 0.60 containing cactus mucilage, the amount of fine pores with respect to the control decreases with increasing concentration of the polymer. Conversely, the seaweed extract has a higher amount of fine pores with increasing concentration of seaweed  extract, only decreasing when the concentration is 1.82%. The use of both admixtures increased the air con- tent in the fresh concrete by approximately 1% above the control (Table 3), which may play a minor role in strength and permeability. 3.3. Compressive strength Figure 7 presents the compressive strength Figure 3. Effect of the calcium hydroxide concentration results at the ages of 60 and 120 days for the con- on the viscosity of cactus mucilage (CM) dispersions at 1.38% (w/v) and pH. crete mixes studied. The organic admixtures did not Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 7 Figure 4. Degree of hydration of cement pastes with w/c ratio=0.30, a) cactus mucilage, and b) seaweed extract. S=sealed curing, W=moist curing. Figure 5. Degree of hydration of cement pastes with w/c ratio=0.60, a) cactus mucilage, and b) seaweed extract. S=sealed curing, W=moist curing. Figure 6. Amplitude of short T / Amplitude of long T ratio of cement pastes. a) w/c ratio of 0.30 and b) w/c of 0.60. 2 2 significantly affect the compressive strength com- respect to the control. This result may be linked to pared to the control, especially in the concrete mixes the water holding capacity of these admixtures that with a w/c ratio of 0.30. Only in the case of concrete make it available when needed to support further with a w/c ratio of 0.60 (Figure 7b) for zero days cement hydration (21, 52). moist curing and containing both cactus mucilage A retrogression of the concrete strength from 60 to and seaweed extract, was a slight increase (20%) 120 days was also observed, especially in the control in compressive strength at 120  days observed with mix with a w/c of 0.30, moist-cured. The specimens Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 8 • E.F. Hernández et al. Figure 7. Compressive strength of concrete specimens at 60 and 120 days old for a) w/c=0.30 and b) w/c=0.60. The error bars represent one standard deviation. that were moist-cured containing the organic admix- trend. Furthermore, the addition of cactus mucilage tures do not show a significant strength reduction, increases the setting times and significantly delays perhaps because of the water holding capacity of cement hydration (13). Therefore, higher compres- the admixtures that reduce drying shrinkage-related sive strength at only three days with respect to the tensile stresses. De Larrard and Aitcin (53) regarded control cannot be expected and it is not feasible to the strength retrogression as an effect caused by the make strong conclusions from their data. Chandra moisture gradients developed when concrete dries et al. (11) reported increases in compressive strength out in the long term generating tensile stresses on of 6% and 12% in mortar containing 50% and 100% the surface and additional compressive stresses in of cactus mucilage solution replacing the mixing the inner concrete, thus appearing as a strength water compared to the control at 90 days of age. reduction of the material. The moisture gradients Before this age, the compressive strength of concrete will be higher in low w/c ratio concrete that has a containing cactus mucilage was always lower than lower permeability, and therefore, the strength retro- the control. gression will be higher. The results from the present study are contrary 3.4. Capillary water absorption to those obtained by Hernandez-Zaragoza et  al. (12) who used lyophilized cactus gum in Portland Figure 8 presents the sorptivity and the perme- cement mortar with a w/c ratio of 0.60. They claim able porosity results of concretes with a w/c of 0.30. to have increased compressive strength by up to 65% Figure 8a shows that mixes containing cactus muci- at three days compared to the control. The behav- lage and seaweed extract have slightly lower sorp- ior observed by those authors is not clear because tivity values than the control. The combination of the compressive strength reported increases and cactus mucilage and seaweed extract did not influ- decreases in an alternating fashion with increas- ence sorptivity. The reduction in water absorption ing cactus gum concentration without any definite is explained by the lower permeable porosity shown Figure 8. a) Sorptivity and b) Volume of permeable porosity of concrete with w/c ratio=0.30 and 120 days old. The error bars indicate one standard deviation. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 9 capillary water absorption of concrete with w/c ratios of 0.30 that were moist-cured for 0 and seven days. Figure 10 shows the sorptivity and permeable porosity of the concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60. In this case, concretes containing organic admixtures, especially concrete containing seaweed extract, have higher sorptivity values than those of the con- trol. Again, the type of curing did not have any significant effect on the results. The higher water absorption capacity of the concretes with organic admixtures is associated with the presence of non- Figure 9. Microphotograph of 2 years old concrete, w/c polar protein segments, which make these admix- ratio=0.30 containing seaweed extract. Magnification 15000X. tures act as air entraining agents that increase the porosity compared to the control mix (Figure 10b) (11). This effect is exacerbated in this mix because of in Figure 8b. Changes in the pore size distribution the higher polymer/cement ratio compared to con- in cement pastes containing the organic additions, crete with a w/c ratio of 0.30. as indicated by the NMR results shown in Figure 6, where the short T component is related to small cap- 3.5. Rapid chloride permeability and accelerated illary pores and the long T component is related to chloride diffusion large capillary pores (51). Hughes (54) proposes an equation that considers the capillary flow as directly 3.5.1. Rapid chloride permeability linked to the pore radius and the tortuosity of the system. Therefore, in a system of finer pores and The effect of organic admixtures on the rapid higher tortuosity, the capillary flow should be lower chloride permeability test in concretes with a w/c compared to systems of larger and more connected ratio of 0.30 and 0.60 is illustrated in Figure 11. In pores. Chandra et al. (11) suggests that the reduction concrete with a w/c ratio of 0.30 (Figure 11a), the in water absorption when cactus mucilage is added charge passed was reduced in concretes containing to mortars is because a film formed by the admixture organic admixtures compared to the control for and the calcium complexes formed during the inter- both types of curing and at both testing ages. At action between the cactus mucilage and the divalent 120 days of age, the values of the charge passed in calcium ions, seals the pores. Similarly, the alginate the control sample, in accordance with the ASTM found in the seaweed extract, reacts with calcium C 1202 standard, correspond to moderate chloride ions to form spheres of calcium alginate (Figure 9). permeability concrete, whereas concretes containing Other studies have shown similar morphology of organic admixtures correspond to low permeability the calcium alginate spheres (19). Furthermore, the concretes. In general, the trend seems to follow the type of curing had no significant effect. These results permeable porosity (Figure 8b), which was affected are in agreement with those reported by Ramírez- by the possible formation of complexes of calcium Arellanes et al. (13) and Caballero (55), which indi- and the reduction of the size of calcium hydroxide cated that the use of cactus mucilage reduces the crystals (11) as well as by the formation of small Figure 10. a) Sorptivity and b) Volume of permeable porosity of concrete with w/c ratio=0.60, 120 days old. The error bars indicate one standard deviation. Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 10 • E.F. Hernández et al. Figure 11. Charge passed (Coulombs) in concrete specimens at 60 and 120 days old, a) w/c ratio=0.30 and b) w/c ratio=0.60. The error bars indicate one standard deviation. spheres of calcium alginate (Figure 9) when the sea- This may be explained by taking into account that weed extract containing alginic acid reacts with cal- admixtures in concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30 did cium ions (19), thus reducing the permeable porosity. not have as significant of an effect on the compres- In contrast, at 60 days of age, concretes with a sive strength as they did on the rapid chloride perme- w/c ratio of 0.60 containing the organic admixtures ability test. Conversely, the admixtures had an effect had a higher charge passed compared to the con- on both the compressive strength and the chloride trol (Figure 11b). At 120 days, the charge passed is ion permeability of concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60. reduced only in specimens containing both cactus mucilage and seaweed extract. Other specimens had 3.5.2. Accelerated chloride ion diffusion similar performance to the control. The permeabil- ity to chloride ions in all of the mixes at both testing The results of the accelerated chloride diffusion ages and types of curing is considered high in accor- tests in concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30 and 0.60 dance to the ASTM C 1202 standard. are presented in Figure 13. Concretes with a w/c Figure 12 indicates a linear relationship between ratio of 0.30 (Figure 13a) containing organic admix- the charge passed from the rapid chloride perme- tures, especially cactus mucilage, had lower diffusion ability test and the compressive strength of concretes coefficients compared to the control. Figure 13b with w/c ratios of 0.30 and 0.60 at 120 days old. In (concrete with a w/c of 0.60) also indicates lower both cases, high values of compressive strength cor- chloride ion diffusion coefficients in mixes contain- respond to low values of charge passed, and vice ing the organic admixtures compared to the control. versa. In concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30, the deter- In this case, concretes containing cactus mucilage/ mination coefficients (r ) were lower compared to seaweed extract exhibited the lowest values. For those obtained in concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60. both w/c ratios the curing had no significant effect on the results. In concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30 containing the admixtures, the reduction in the diffusion coef- ficients suggests that they are less permeable than the control, as further indicated by the capillary absorption and porosity results. In concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.60 containing organic admixtures, the reduction in the diffusion coefficients can be attributed to the increased viscosity of the pore solution caused by the presence of polysaccharides with high molecular weight in these admixtures. In these concretes, the viscosity of the pore solution should be increased by a higher amount of poly- saccharides compared to the concrete with a w/c ratio of 0.30. The Stokes-Einstein equation establishes an inverse relation between the diffusion coefficient and the vis- Figure 12. Relationship between the charge passed cosity of the solution. The presence of molecules and the compressive strength of concretes w/c ratio=0.30 and 0.60, at 120 days of age. that interact with water and increase its viscosity can Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 11 Figure 13. Diffusion coefficients of Cl in concrete at 120 days, a) w/c ratio=0.30 and b) w/c ratio=0.60. The error bars represent one standard deviation. also serve as physical barriers that reduce the dif- 3.6. Carbonation fusion coefficient (47). Using the experimental dif- fusion coefficients for the concretes studied, the Figure 14a shows the carbonation results of con- apparent viscosity of the pore solution was then cretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30. Mixes containing cac- calculated. For instance, the concrete with a w/c tus mucilage and seaweed extract and moist-cured ratio of 0.30 containing cactus mucilage had a for 0 days exhibit reduced carbonation front with −6 2 chloride diffusion coefficient of 4.93×10 mm /s, respect to both the control and the combination of and the concrete containing seaweed extract had a mucilage and seaweed extract. This combination of −6 2 diffusion coefficient of 5.81×10 mm /s. The calcu- cactus mucilage and seaweed extract had an adverse lated apparent viscosities of the pore solution are effect, increasing the carbonation front even with 284 cP and 241 cP, respectively. These values of vis- respect to the control. These results are related to the cosity are in the same order of magnitude as those lower porosity and lower sorptivity of these mixes determined experimentally by Poinot et  al. (56), (see the Capillary water absorption section). In the who extracted pore solution from mortars contain- case of mixes moist-cured for 28 days, those contain- ing viscosity-enhancing admixtures. Performing the ing only seaweed extract showed carbona tion. This same calculation to obtain the viscosity of the pore could be because the alginate in the seaweed extract solution in concrete without any organic admix- forms insoluble chemical compounds with divalent 2+ tures gives a value of approximately 163 cP; for the ions such as Ca (19). This reduces the availability concrete with a w/c of 0.60, it is estimated as 23 cP. of Ca(OH) necessary for the formation of CaCO 2 3, Trachtenberg and Mayer (52) obtained values of allowing for the increased penetration of CO reduced viscosity 250 times higher than that of water In concrete with a w/c ratio of 0.60 (Figure 14b) from a cactus mucilage solution containing 1 M of and moist-cured for 0 days, the highest reduction in CaCl in water and an acid solution. In an alka- the carbonation front was obtained in mixes con- line cactus mucilage solution (pH 9.8) containing taining cactus mucilage and those containing a com- 0.1 M CaCl , increases in viscosity up to 750 times bination of cactus mucilage and seaweed extract. higher than water were observed. These calcula- In concretes containing only seaweed extract, the tions suggest that it is possible that the viscosity of carbonation depth was comparable to that of the a pore solution containing the organic admixtures control. The same performance occurred in con- may contribute to an approximately 42%  reduc- cretes that were moist-cured for 28 days. The cur- tion in the diffusion coefficient, which is consistent ing significantly affected the control mix and the with the results shown in Figure 13. The same cal- mixes containing seaweed extract. An explanation culations were performed in concretes with a w/c for the lower carbonation depth observed when cac- ratio of 0.60 containing cactus mucilage and sea- tus mucilage is used, may be linked to its capacity weed extract. The chloride ion diffusion coefficients to retain water and to form calcium complexes with −5 2 −5 2 were 3.49×10 mm /s and 2.63×10 mm /s for the calcium hydroxide (11). In the first case, the higher concrete mixes containing cactus mucilage and sea- water content permits dissolution of Ca(OH) that weed extract, respectively. The apparent viscosities reacts with CO to form more CaCO , whereas the 2 3 are estimated as 40 cP and 53 cP, respectively, and calcium complexes formed may act like pore sealants the reduction of the chloride diffusion coefficient is that reduce the permeability to CO . Studies with approximately 56%. lime mortar have shown the opposite performance, Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 12 • E.F. Hernández et al. Figure 14. Carbonation depth in concrete at 180 days, a) w/c ratio=0.30 and b) w/c ratio=0.60. The error bars represent one standard deviation. where cactus mucilage increased the carbonation hydration because there was already enough depth with respect to the control (57). water for hydration, and the porosity increased as To calculate the carbonation coefficient that a result of the retardation effect on cement hydra- would be obtained under normal ambient condi- tion and the subsequent drying. Those changes tions, based on the carbonation coefficient obtained in porosity marginally affected compressive in the accelerated test of this investigation, equation strength, being the most noticeable in concrete [2] was used (58): with a w/c ratio of 0.60 and 0 days moist-cured, where the combination of cactus mucilage and K C1 acc acc seaweed extract increased the strength at 120 days [2] by 20% with respect to the control. K C 2 amb amb 2. Regarding durability, the capillary water absorp- where tion and the rapid chloride permeability were K =accelerated test carbonation coefficient acc marginally influenced by the permeable poros- 1/2 (mm/days ) ity produced by the use of the admixtures, being 1/2 K =ambient carbonation coefficient (mm/days ) amb lower in concrete with a low w/c ratio and higher C1 =concentration of CO in accelerated test (4.40%) acc 2 C2 =ambient CO concentration (0.04%). amb 2 Table 4. Prediction of time required to carbonate 25.4 mm (1 in.) of concrete Table 4 shows the time required to reach a car- bonation front at a 25 mm reinforcement level for 1/2 1/2 Mixture K (mm/days ) K (mm/days ) Years acc amb each mix type. The results obtained in concretes 06-0CC 3.07 0.29 20.0 containing cactus mucilage with a w/c ratio of 0.60 06-0CM 2.19 0.21 39.38 showed significant increases in time. In the case of concretes with a w/c ratio of 0.30, the carbonation 06-0CA 3.17 0.30 18.72 front will not reach the reinforcing steel in a lifespan 06-0CMA 2.21 0.21 38.70 of 60 years. 06-28CC 2.34 0.22 34.42 06-28CM 1.94 0.18 50.25 4. CONCLUSIONS 06-28CA 2.59 0.25 27.99 06-28CMA 1.88 0.18 53.13 Based on the results of this experimental research, the following conclusions are drawn: 03-0CC 0.33 0.03 >60 1. Addition of cactus mucilage and seaweed extract 03-0CM 0.05 0.00 >60 to concrete produced distinct effects on the 03-0CA 0.19 0.02 >60 mechanical properties and durability depend- 03-0CMA 0.52 0.05 >60 ing on the water to cement ratio. In the case of a 03-28CC – – >60 low w/c ratio, the permeable porosity decreased because of the water holding capacity of the 03-28CM – – >60 polymers, which provided additional moisture for 03-28CA 0.05 0.00 >60 further cement hydration. In concrete with high 03-28CMA – – >60 w/c ratio, the additional water did not improve Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514 Influence of cactus mucilage and marine brown algae extract on the compressive strength and durability of concrete • 13 cactus gum. Chemistry and Chemical Technology. 1 [3], in concrete with a high w/c ratio, compared to 175–177. the control mixes. The chloride ion diffusion 13. Ramírez-Arellanes, S.; Cano-Barrita, P.F. de J.; Julián- coefficients were clearly reduced by the use of the Caballero, F.; and Gómez-Yañez, C. (2012) Concrete durabil- cactus mucilage and seaweed extract in both w/c ity properties and microstructural analysis of cement paste with nopal cactus mucilage as a natural additive. Mater. ratios and curing types compared to the control Construcc. 62 [302], 327–341. http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc. mix. Combinations of the lower porosity and/ 2012.00211. or changes in the properties of the pore solu- 14. Leon-Martinez F.; Cano-Barrita P.F.J.; Lagunez-Rivera L.; Medina-Torres L. (2014) Study of nopal mucilage and marine tion (viscosity) could explain these results. The brown algae extract as viscosity enhancing admixtures for carbonation depth was decreased in concrete cement based materials. Construct. Build. Mat. 53 [2], 190–202. containing cactus mucilage compared to the con- http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2013.11.068. trol mixes as a result of the decreased permeable 15. Torres-Acosta A.A.; Martínez-Molina W.; Alonso-Guzmán E.M. (2012) State of the Art on Cactus Additions in Alkaline porosity and increased viscosity. Media as Corrosion Inhibitors. International Journal of Corrosion. Article ID 646142, 9 pages, http://dx.doi.org/ ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 10.1155/2012/646142. 16. Fischer, F.G.; Dorfel, H. (1955) Polyuronic acids in brown algae. Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift fur physiologische Chemie. Prisciliano Cano would like to thank the Consejo 302 [4–6], 186–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bchm2.1955. Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (Conacyt) of 302.1-2.186. Mexico for funding the project ID code CB 103763, 17. Haug, A.; Smidsrød, O. (1965) Fractionation of alginates by precipitation with calcium and magnesium ions. Acta Chem. and the SIP of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional of Scand. 19, 1221–1226. http://dx.doi.org/10.3891/acta.chem. Mexico for funding the project ID code 20140613. scand.19-1221. Eddisson Francisco Hernandez would like to thank 18. Reyes-Tisnado, R.; Hernández-Carmona, G.; López- Gutiérrez, F.; Vernon-Carter, E.J.; Castro-Moyoroqui, P. CONACYT for his PhD scholarship and IPN for (2004) Sodium and Potassium alginates extracted from the PIFI scholarship. The authors acknowledge Macrocystis Pyrifera algae for use in dental impression M. Sc. Frank Manuel León-Martinez for useful dis- materials. Cienc. Mar. 30 [01B], 189–199. Online at http:// cussions on the rheology of aqueous solutions and www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=48003004. 19. Pathak, T.S.; Yun, J-H.; Lee, J.; Paeng, K-J. (2010) Effect of cement pastes. calcium ion (cross-linker) concentration on porosity, surface morphology and thermal behavior of calcium alginates REFERENCES prepared from algae (Undaria pinnatífida). 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(2007) Carbonation rates of ASTM Standard C1202-97: Standard Test Method for concretes containing high volume of pozzolanic ma terials. Electrical Indication of Concrete’s Ability to Resist Cem. Concr. Res. 37 [12], 1647–1653. http://dx.doi.org/ Chloride Ion Penetration, West Conshohocken, PA, 6. 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.08.014 Materiales de Construcción 66 (321), January–March 2016, e074. ISSN-L: 0465-2746. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3989/mc.2016.07514

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