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Human Neuroimaging and the BRAIN Initiative: A Joint Statement from the ASNR and ASFNR, with the support of the RSNA, ACR, ARR, and ISMRM

Human Neuroimaging and the BRAIN Initiative: A Joint Statement from the ASNR and ASFNR, with the... are 3 societies offering such programs. The oldest is the Figley Fellowship from the American Roentgen Ray Society, which is now geared to young individuals practicing in the United States; and the newer Rogers International Editorial Fellowship, which, as its name implies, is available to those residing outside the United States. Fifty-seven individuals (including myself) have participated in one of these fellowships, and 7 have become jour- nal editors (S. Cappitelli, personal communication; December 2012). The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and Radiology have offered their Olmsted Fellowship to 7 individuals, but none serve on its Editorial Board (R. Arnold, personal com- munication; December 2012). The Eyler Fellowship from the RSNA is designed for midcareer individuals, and I have not in- cluded it in this discussion. In the Spanish-speaking world, the Spanish Society of Medical Radiology and its journal, Radiologia, are the only ones to offer an editorial fellowship. ASNR and AJNR asm and knowledge regarding advanced neuroimaging and was a have recently started a similar endeavor, and information about true gentleman. An obituary with details about his life is also this can be found on our blog (www.ajnrblog.org) or Web site. published in this issue of the American Journal of Neuroradiology In conclusion, I think that we have had some degree of early, (AJNR). but encouraging, success by using trainees in the peer-review pro- We welcome Dr Jody Tanabe as our new Senior Editor in cess of AJNR. Their participation has been limited, but the results charge of advanced imaging. She is currently Professor of Radiol- of their timely reviews do not differ significantly from those of our ogy, Psychiatry, and Neurology at the University of Colorado, more senior reviewers. We hope to start implementing new mea- where she is also Chief of Neuroradiology. She was a radiology sures that will increase the number of trainee reviewers, standard- resident at Cornell Medical School, a neuroradiology fellow at the ize their contributions, and recognize their effort. University of California, San Francisco, and, before moving to Denver, a neuroradiologist at New York University. Dr Tanabe’s REFERENCES main areas of interest are neuroimaging of psychiatric and per- 1. Lee K, Bero L. What authors, editors and reviewers should do to sonality disorders and drug addiction, for which she has been improve peer review. Nature (2006), http://www.nature.com/nature/ peerreview/debate/nature05007.html. Accessed May 13, 2013 awarded 7 NIH and foundation grants as principal investigator. 2. Bauerlein M, Gad-el-Hak M, Grody H, et al. We must stop the ava- She is a regular member of an NIH study section. Please join us lanche of low-quality research. The Chronicle of Higher Education, here at AJNR in welcoming her; we are indeed lucky to have such June 13, 2010, http://chronicle.com/article/We-Must-Stop-the- a respected researcher to help us make our journal even better. Avalanche-of/65890. Accessed May 13, 2013 3. Mainguy G, Motamedi MR, Mietchen D. Peer review: the newcomers’ perspective. PLoS Biol 2005;3:e326 EDITORIAL 4. Proto AV. Radiology 2007: reviewing for Radiology. Radiology 2007;244:7–11 Human Neuroimaging and the 5. Provenzale JM, Stanley RJ. A systematic guide to reviewing a manu- script. J Nuclear Med Technol 2006;34:92–99 BRAIN Initiative: 6. Callaham ML, Knopp RK, Gallagher EJ. Effect of written feedback by editors on quality of reviews: two randomized trials. JAMA A Joint Statement from the ASNR 2002;287:2781–83 and ASFNR, with the support of the 7. Rothwell PM, Martyn CN. Reproducibility of peer review in clin- ical neuroscience: is agreement between reviewers any greater RSNA, ACR, ARR, and ISMRM than would be expected by chance alone? Brain 2000;123 (pt 9):1964 – 69 G. Sze, M. Wintermark, M. Law, P. Mukherjee, and C. Hess 8. Armstrong JS. Peer review for journals: evidence on quality control, fairness, and innovation. Sci Eng Ethics 1997;3:63–84 he BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing In- EDITORIAL Tnovative Neurotechnologies), launched by President Obama on April 1, 2013, and developed by the National Institutes of Health, is the much publicized potentially multidecade Presiden- Editorial Transition tial focus, seeking to “revolutionize our understanding of the hu- M. Castillo, Editor-in-Chief man brain.” Its official charge is “to accelerate the development and application of innovative new technologies to construct a s many of our readers may know by now, we are terribly dynamic picture of brain function that integrates neuronal and Asaddened by the passing of our colleague and Senior Editor, circuit activity over time and space. The goal is to build on the Dr Lucien Levy. Lucien brought with him considerable enthusi- growing scientific foundation of neuroscience, genetics, physics, http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A3882 http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A3874 AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 35:211–15 Feb 2014 www.ajnr.org 213 engineering, informatics, nanoscience, chemistry, mathematics, itoringinevenmoredisorders.Thesedisorderscausegreatmorbidity and other advances of the past few decades, to catalyze an inter- and mortality, from neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, disciplinary effort of unprecedented scope.” This exciting multi- to the psychiatric diseases of schizophrenia, depression, substance agency initiative will span the next decade and include funding abuse, and so forth, to the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alz- commitments from the National Science Foundation ($20 mil- heimer disease and Parkinson disease. These new advances include lion per year) and the Defense Advanced Research Programs imaging human brain structural and functional connectivity as well Agency ($50 million per year). It is important that it demonstrates as the development of new methods of visualizing pathology at the early successes to convince the public that the funds committed to molecular level, such as chemical exchange saturation transfer, hy- this project are well-spent tax dollars. Also, and perhaps more perpolarized C MR imaging, PET with novel amyloid and  agents, important, it is crucial to demonstrate to the public that this ini- and so forth. tiative will truly impact patient care and ultimately improve the Both the bottom up and top down approaches will converge in well-being of the American people. the sense that both involve big data and will require specific de- The American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), represent- velopments in terms of computing, which has been defined as the ing more than 5000 neuroradiologists and brain imaging scien- third axis of the Initiative. tists, with the support of the Radiological Society of North Amer- The community of brain imagers, encompassing ASNR, ica (RSNA), representing over 51,000 members; the American RSNA, ACR, ISMRM, and ARR, would like to volunteer its help College of Radiology (ACR), representing more than 36,000 and support for the human brain imaging component of the Ini- members; the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in tiative. We have the advantage that as physicians taking care of Medicine (ISMRM), representing more than 8000 members; and patients, we can garner public support for this multidecade fund- the Academy of Radiology Research (ARR), which serves as the ing push by demonstrating the advantages to the public of short- overall science policy and advocacy voice for the academic imag- term health benefits, while at the same time developing longer ing research community, believes that to achieve these goals, a term research goals. We have the resources and the structures number of approaches need to be pursued concurrently. One ap- necessary to facilitate large-scale collaborative efforts in terms of proach needs to focus on cellular models and neural circuits to human brain imaging. better understand the functioning of the brain from the bottom Once our understanding of healthy brain organization and up. This approach will require molecular studies; large-scale re- function has advanced through this process, we as imagers and cording technologies; the use of nonhuman models, such as the “brain health care providers” can apply this knowledge to fur- connectome of Drosophila; and viral tracer or microbial tech- ther generate major breakthroughs in the medical manage- niques to look at neurons in animal models. ment of patients with a wide variety of disorders that can afflict A simultaneous, parallel approach is necessary to study the the human brain. We are also fortunate to have principal in- brain from the top down, including brain mapping and circuits. vestigators of the Human Connectome Project and the Human neuroimaging is well poised to tackle this task. We, as ENIGMA consortium, a worldwide network of more than 200 human brain imagers, have developed a wealth of information imaging and genetic scientists at 125 institutions, leading concerning systems integration that can be used to effectively translation of brain imaging and genomics into the clinic. Fi- probe the complexities of brain structure. Keep in mind that the nally, our participation may alleviate the concerns of groups human brain is a system that contains 100 billion neurons, each who monitor animal experiments closely. with an average of 7000 connections or synapses to other ele- In conclusion, as physicians and scientists taking care of patients ments, regulated by more than 100 excitatory and inhibitory sets and experts in brain imaging, we would like to pledge our support to of modulators or neurotransmitters. The magnitude of this ana- the BRAIN Initiative and hope that we will be able to contribute to tomic complexity is difficult to even contemplate and will surely new programs that will both revolutionize our understanding of the defy attempts for accurate characterization unless the problem brain and fundamentally impact the care of patients with neurologic can be simplified by using evidence derived from functional and disease. anatomic pathways that the brain imaging community has accu- mulated through decades of research. CONTRIBUTORS Neuroimaging is essential for the treatment of most diseases of Bibb Allen, Kimberly Applegate, Ronald Arenson, Daniel Barbo- the brain, from acute traumatic brain injury to stroke to brain tumors riak, Michael Brant-Zawadzki, Kenneth Cammarata, Renee to multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and so forth. Indeed, the developers of Cruea, Burton Drayer, Richard Ehman, Paul Ellenbogen, Scott CT and MR imaging have been awarded separate Nobel Prizes, and Faro, Christopher Filippi, Gary Glover, Clifford Jack, Peter Jez- these tools have become indispensable for neurologic and neurosur- zard, Michael Kalutkiewicz, Lucien Levy, Jonathan Lewin, David gical care. Recently, new advances in microstructural, functional, and Mikulis, Carolyn Meltzer, Jeff Neil, Harvey Neiman, Alex Nor- molecular human brain imaging have opened the way for a revolu- bash, Todd Parish, Vijay Rao, Bruce Rosen, Donald Rosen, Kamil tion in terms of diagnosis, outcome prediction, and treatment mon- Ugurbil, Mark Watson, Kirk Welker, Ona Wu. 214 Editorials Feb 2014 www.ajnr.org http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png American Journal of Neuroradiology Unpaywall

Human Neuroimaging and the BRAIN Initiative: A Joint Statement from the ASNR and ASFNR, with the support of the RSNA, ACR, ARR, and ISMRM

American Journal of NeuroradiologyJan 16, 2014

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Abstract

are 3 societies offering such programs. The oldest is the Figley Fellowship from the American Roentgen Ray Society, which is now geared to young individuals practicing in the United States; and the newer Rogers International Editorial Fellowship, which, as its name implies, is available to those residing outside the United States. Fifty-seven individuals (including myself) have participated in one of these fellowships, and 7 have become jour- nal editors (S. Cappitelli, personal communication; December 2012). The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) and Radiology have offered their Olmsted Fellowship to 7 individuals, but none serve on its Editorial Board (R. Arnold, personal com- munication; December 2012). The Eyler Fellowship from the RSNA is designed for midcareer individuals, and I have not in- cluded it in this discussion. In the Spanish-speaking world, the Spanish Society of Medical Radiology and its journal, Radiologia, are the only ones to offer an editorial fellowship. ASNR and AJNR asm and knowledge regarding advanced neuroimaging and was a have recently started a similar endeavor, and information about true gentleman. An obituary with details about his life is also this can be found on our blog (www.ajnrblog.org) or Web site. published in this issue of the American Journal of Neuroradiology In conclusion, I think that we have had some degree of early, (AJNR). but encouraging, success by using trainees in the peer-review pro- We welcome Dr Jody Tanabe as our new Senior Editor in cess of AJNR. Their participation has been limited, but the results charge of advanced imaging. She is currently Professor of Radiol- of their timely reviews do not differ significantly from those of our ogy, Psychiatry, and Neurology at the University of Colorado, more senior reviewers. We hope to start implementing new mea- where she is also Chief of Neuroradiology. She was a radiology sures that will increase the number of trainee reviewers, standard- resident at Cornell Medical School, a neuroradiology fellow at the ize their contributions, and recognize their effort. University of California, San Francisco, and, before moving to Denver, a neuroradiologist at New York University. Dr Tanabe’s REFERENCES main areas of interest are neuroimaging of psychiatric and per- 1. Lee K, Bero L. What authors, editors and reviewers should do to sonality disorders and drug addiction, for which she has been improve peer review. Nature (2006), http://www.nature.com/nature/ peerreview/debate/nature05007.html. Accessed May 13, 2013 awarded 7 NIH and foundation grants as principal investigator. 2. Bauerlein M, Gad-el-Hak M, Grody H, et al. We must stop the ava- She is a regular member of an NIH study section. Please join us lanche of low-quality research. The Chronicle of Higher Education, here at AJNR in welcoming her; we are indeed lucky to have such June 13, 2010, http://chronicle.com/article/We-Must-Stop-the- a respected researcher to help us make our journal even better. Avalanche-of/65890. Accessed May 13, 2013 3. Mainguy G, Motamedi MR, Mietchen D. Peer review: the newcomers’ perspective. PLoS Biol 2005;3:e326 EDITORIAL 4. Proto AV. Radiology 2007: reviewing for Radiology. Radiology 2007;244:7–11 Human Neuroimaging and the 5. Provenzale JM, Stanley RJ. A systematic guide to reviewing a manu- script. J Nuclear Med Technol 2006;34:92–99 BRAIN Initiative: 6. Callaham ML, Knopp RK, Gallagher EJ. Effect of written feedback by editors on quality of reviews: two randomized trials. JAMA A Joint Statement from the ASNR 2002;287:2781–83 and ASFNR, with the support of the 7. Rothwell PM, Martyn CN. Reproducibility of peer review in clin- ical neuroscience: is agreement between reviewers any greater RSNA, ACR, ARR, and ISMRM than would be expected by chance alone? Brain 2000;123 (pt 9):1964 – 69 G. Sze, M. Wintermark, M. Law, P. Mukherjee, and C. Hess 8. Armstrong JS. Peer review for journals: evidence on quality control, fairness, and innovation. Sci Eng Ethics 1997;3:63–84 he BRAIN Initiative (Brain Research through Advancing In- EDITORIAL Tnovative Neurotechnologies), launched by President Obama on April 1, 2013, and developed by the National Institutes of Health, is the much publicized potentially multidecade Presiden- Editorial Transition tial focus, seeking to “revolutionize our understanding of the hu- M. Castillo, Editor-in-Chief man brain.” Its official charge is “to accelerate the development and application of innovative new technologies to construct a s many of our readers may know by now, we are terribly dynamic picture of brain function that integrates neuronal and Asaddened by the passing of our colleague and Senior Editor, circuit activity over time and space. The goal is to build on the Dr Lucien Levy. Lucien brought with him considerable enthusi- growing scientific foundation of neuroscience, genetics, physics, http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A3882 http://dx.doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A3874 AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 35:211–15 Feb 2014 www.ajnr.org 213 engineering, informatics, nanoscience, chemistry, mathematics, itoringinevenmoredisorders.Thesedisorderscausegreatmorbidity and other advances of the past few decades, to catalyze an inter- and mortality, from neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, disciplinary effort of unprecedented scope.” This exciting multi- to the psychiatric diseases of schizophrenia, depression, substance agency initiative will span the next decade and include funding abuse, and so forth, to the neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alz- commitments from the National Science Foundation ($20 mil- heimer disease and Parkinson disease. These new advances include lion per year) and the Defense Advanced Research Programs imaging human brain structural and functional connectivity as well Agency ($50 million per year). It is important that it demonstrates as the development of new methods of visualizing pathology at the early successes to convince the public that the funds committed to molecular level, such as chemical exchange saturation transfer, hy- this project are well-spent tax dollars. Also, and perhaps more perpolarized C MR imaging, PET with novel amyloid and  agents, important, it is crucial to demonstrate to the public that this ini- and so forth. tiative will truly impact patient care and ultimately improve the Both the bottom up and top down approaches will converge in well-being of the American people. the sense that both involve big data and will require specific de- The American Society of Neuroradiology (ASNR), represent- velopments in terms of computing, which has been defined as the ing more than 5000 neuroradiologists and brain imaging scien- third axis of the Initiative. tists, with the support of the Radiological Society of North Amer- The community of brain imagers, encompassing ASNR, ica (RSNA), representing over 51,000 members; the American RSNA, ACR, ISMRM, and ARR, would like to volunteer its help College of Radiology (ACR), representing more than 36,000 and support for the human brain imaging component of the Ini- members; the International Society of Magnetic Resonance in tiative. We have the advantage that as physicians taking care of Medicine (ISMRM), representing more than 8000 members; and patients, we can garner public support for this multidecade fund- the Academy of Radiology Research (ARR), which serves as the ing push by demonstrating the advantages to the public of short- overall science policy and advocacy voice for the academic imag- term health benefits, while at the same time developing longer ing research community, believes that to achieve these goals, a term research goals. We have the resources and the structures number of approaches need to be pursued concurrently. One ap- necessary to facilitate large-scale collaborative efforts in terms of proach needs to focus on cellular models and neural circuits to human brain imaging. better understand the functioning of the brain from the bottom Once our understanding of healthy brain organization and up. This approach will require molecular studies; large-scale re- function has advanced through this process, we as imagers and cording technologies; the use of nonhuman models, such as the “brain health care providers” can apply this knowledge to fur- connectome of Drosophila; and viral tracer or microbial tech- ther generate major breakthroughs in the medical manage- niques to look at neurons in animal models. ment of patients with a wide variety of disorders that can afflict A simultaneous, parallel approach is necessary to study the the human brain. We are also fortunate to have principal in- brain from the top down, including brain mapping and circuits. vestigators of the Human Connectome Project and the Human neuroimaging is well poised to tackle this task. We, as ENIGMA consortium, a worldwide network of more than 200 human brain imagers, have developed a wealth of information imaging and genetic scientists at 125 institutions, leading concerning systems integration that can be used to effectively translation of brain imaging and genomics into the clinic. Fi- probe the complexities of brain structure. Keep in mind that the nally, our participation may alleviate the concerns of groups human brain is a system that contains 100 billion neurons, each who monitor animal experiments closely. with an average of 7000 connections or synapses to other ele- In conclusion, as physicians and scientists taking care of patients ments, regulated by more than 100 excitatory and inhibitory sets and experts in brain imaging, we would like to pledge our support to of modulators or neurotransmitters. The magnitude of this ana- the BRAIN Initiative and hope that we will be able to contribute to tomic complexity is difficult to even contemplate and will surely new programs that will both revolutionize our understanding of the defy attempts for accurate characterization unless the problem brain and fundamentally impact the care of patients with neurologic can be simplified by using evidence derived from functional and disease. anatomic pathways that the brain imaging community has accu- mulated through decades of research. CONTRIBUTORS Neuroimaging is essential for the treatment of most diseases of Bibb Allen, Kimberly Applegate, Ronald Arenson, Daniel Barbo- the brain, from acute traumatic brain injury to stroke to brain tumors riak, Michael Brant-Zawadzki, Kenneth Cammarata, Renee to multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and so forth. Indeed, the developers of Cruea, Burton Drayer, Richard Ehman, Paul Ellenbogen, Scott CT and MR imaging have been awarded separate Nobel Prizes, and Faro, Christopher Filippi, Gary Glover, Clifford Jack, Peter Jez- these tools have become indispensable for neurologic and neurosur- zard, Michael Kalutkiewicz, Lucien Levy, Jonathan Lewin, David gical care. Recently, new advances in microstructural, functional, and Mikulis, Carolyn Meltzer, Jeff Neil, Harvey Neiman, Alex Nor- molecular human brain imaging have opened the way for a revolu- bash, Todd Parish, Vijay Rao, Bruce Rosen, Donald Rosen, Kamil tion in terms of diagnosis, outcome prediction, and treatment mon- Ugurbil, Mark Watson, Kirk Welker, Ona Wu. 214 Editorials Feb 2014 www.ajnr.org

Journal

American Journal of NeuroradiologyUnpaywall

Published: Jan 16, 2014

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