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Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences

Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development:... Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: https://ojs.hh.se/index.php/JISIB/index Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences a,b,c Jonathan Calof a b Telfer School of Management, Canada; North-West University, South Africa; National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation; [email protected] To cite this article: Calof, J. (2016) Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business. Vol 6, No 1. Pages 48-58. Article URL: https://ojs.hh.se/index.php/JISIB/article/view/142 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article is Open Access, in compliance with Strategy 2 of the 2002 Budapest Open Access Initiative, which states: Scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. 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Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Vol. 6, No. 1 (2016) pp. 48-58 Open Access: Freely available at: https://ojs.hh.se/ Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences a,b,c Jonathan Calof a b c Telfer School of Management, Canada; North-West University, South Africa; National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation; [email protected] Received 2 February 2016; accepted 20 May 2016 ABSTRACT Can competitive intelligence (CI) be used to assist in regional and sectoral economic development? This article looks at intelligence initiatives (largely around training) sponsored by various government departments and agencies in Canada and their link to regional and sectoral economic development. The article provides examples of the kind of intelligence initiatives that have been used in Canada to support regional and sectoral (industrial) economic development. The article proposes a method for categorizing these regional and sectoral intelligence programs and suggests methods for assessing the impact of these programs on regional and sectoral economic development. The Canadian programs are divided into three broad categories 1) Government programs aimed at enhancing their own ability to develop competitive intelligence 2) Programs that are sponsored by the government for industry and others to develop competitive intelligence and 3) Programs sponsored by the government to help communities develop competitive intelligence for local economic development. Positive economic impacts were identified using program review documents, government officer reports and anecdotal evidence from program participant surveys. However, while the evidence does support positive impact a more comprehensive approach to evaluating these impacts should be considered in the future. KEYWORDS competitive intelligence, economic development, economic intelligence, program impact, program review External environmental changes (the focus of 1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW CI): Making better decisions based on a proper understanding of the competitive environment “have brought new opportunities to regional (present and future) is at the heart of industries while simultaneously exposing competitive intelligence (CI). Competitive them to increased competition both intelligence assists organizations in developing domestically and internationally” (Stinson a proactive approach that identifies and 2006, p. 4). responds to changes in the competitive environmental, helping organizations It has also been identified as critical in (companies, governments, universities, designing economic policy and programs (Calof associations and others) thrive in turbulent et al., 2015). times. This need for understanding the The objective of this paper is to look at how external environment and its impact on government competitive intelligence initiatives success has been echoed in the regional have been used in Canada to enhance economic economic development planning literature. development at both the regional and sectoral level. The intent of presenting both programs projects (both government and industry and evidence of program impacts is to working together to develop stimulate a global discussion on how regional competitive intelligence). and sectoral economic development can be 3. Programs sponsored by the government enhanced through government competitive to help communities develop intelligence activities. It is hoped that competitive intelligence or local researchers from other countries that read this economic development. This category article will be encouraged to develop similar involves programs sponsored by the articles and provide additional program government aimed at assisting small examples that can be shared amongst the communities in developing competitive competitive intelligence and government intelligence capabilities for local program communities. economic development Governments in Canada both at the Federal and Provincial level have been involved in Programs and initiatives in these three competitive intelligence initiatives largely categories are then examined for evidence of since the mid 1990s. In this article, several of economic impact at the regional and/or sectoral these programs will be described and (industry) level. discussed. This article uses, as its base for discussing these initiatives, a comprehensive 2. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN review of competitive intelligence in Canada COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE (Calof and Brouard, 2004) and programs that the author of this article has extensive Government involvement in competitive knowledge about either through active intelligence has been studies and written about involvement in them (e.g. training programs for many years. Dedijer (1994) wrote about the delivered by the author, organizational French government’s involvement in systems created by the author etc.) or because competitive intelligence. Much has been the author reviewed and/or studied them for written about the French involvement in CI academic purposes (for example, the National including the use of and development of CI for Research Council’s competitive intelligence government economic policy purposes, French unit study as reported in Calof, 2014). While government CI assistance to companies and this could lead to possible biases in terms of the associations, as well as joint intelligence assistance involving chambers of commerce, comprehensiveness of programs reviewed for this article, nevertheless in depth knowledge of industry association and companies (Dedijer the programs and the government officers 1994, Horne and Parks, 2004, Bisson, 2014). responsible for the programs are required to Similarly, Calof and Brouard (2004) looked at properly analyze and classify them. Canadian Federal and Provincial involvement in Canadian competitive intelligence and Over one hundred government programs and intelligence initiatives are examined in Julyeta et al. (2014) looked at examples of this article. These are divided into three broad government involvement in competitive categories that are discussed in more detail in intelligence in Indonesia. Section 3 (including the rationale behind these These and other authors have looked at the categories): importance of these activities as a stimulus to regional and sectoral economic development. 1. Government programs aimed at For example, Julyeta et al. wrote ““It was then enhancing their own ability to develop decided to used Competitive Intelligence not competitive intelligence. This includes only to promote new economic and training initiatives (e.g. sending development conditions, but to move to local government officers for competitive policy to promote in some key positions people intelligence training) and creating which will have a Competitive Intelligence intelligence units. background and which will be able to facilitate 2. Programs that are sponsored by a global move of the local stakeholders to new government for industry and others to horizons.” (2014, p. 38). Bisson (2014, p. 10), in develop competitive intelligence. This looking at the work of Guesnier (2004), category includes providing or Momagri (2012) and Massmann and Quonniam sponsoring training in competitive (2010), wrote: intelligence for Canadian companies (and associations) and joint intelligence 50 “[these authors have] pointed out the looks to provide readers with information on correlation between territorial governance government competitive intelligence initiatives and economic performance, and in this way in Canada, in particular those geared towards CI activities should lead to better territorial regional and/or sectoral economic development economic results. A lack of information, for and their economic impact. There are three example, on price or technology lowers the caveats on the programs discussed in this price of farmers’ yields.” article: Calof and Brouard (2004) looked at the 1. This article does not cover all Canadian Canadian experience with competitive programs that use intelligence for intelligence between 1989 and 2004. In their regional or sectoral economic research, they looked at competitive development. It is not truly intelligence growth in terms of academic comprehensive. It includes only ones development (courses and research), corporate that the author has been involved with, activity, associations, consulting and either through studying them, running government activities. The authors noted that them or advising the organization in there had been significant development in the charge of them. This limitation is made 1990s in terms of government involvement in to ensure that the author has sufficient competitive intelligence. For example, in the information to discuss, assess and mid 1990s the Department of Foreign Affairs properly classify the programs. developed an intelligence program for 2. Although this article covers programs producing competitive intelligence for between 1993 and 2015, the majority of Canadian companies and departmental the programs discussed occurred before officials. Agriculture Canada established 2006. This arose as from 2006-2015 market intelligence within their Market and significant budget cutting arose both at Industry Services Branch for providing policy the federal and provincial levels, advice within the department. Industry making the funding of the programs Canada brought in a competitive intelligence discussed in this article difficult. training program to enhance their officers’ 3. This article only looks at competitive skills. The National Research Council intelligence programs and initiatives established a technical intelligence unit in associated with economic departments. their organization to provide technical It does not look at programs associated intelligence to departmental officers for with national security and national decision making and policy development. intelligence agencies (for example Provincially, Alberta Economic Development Canadian Security and Intelligence brought in competitive intelligence training for Service – CSIS, Communications their officers and also made it available to their Security Establishment – CSE). industry clients. Alberta also set up a joint market intelligence committee, which had 3. CANADIAN GOVERNMENT representation from various federal and ACTIVITIES IN COMPETITIVE provincial economic departments. In INTELLIGENCE Saskatchewan, STEP (Saskatchewan Trade and Export Program) developed an intelligence One of the contributions of this article is that it department and established market attempts to develop a classification scheme for intelligence as one of their offerings to government competitive intelligence Saskatchewan business. In Nova Scotia, Nova initiatives. In reviewing past articles on Scotia Business Inc. also brought in government involvement in competitive competitive intelligence training and intelligence (described in Section 2) the author established market intelligence as a product notes that programs and initiatives tend to fall offered to Nova Scotia Business. In Quebec, into one of two broad categories: 1) Programs each Quebec ministry had an officer designed to help the government develop responsible for competitive intelligence. This competitive intelligence (for example officer reported to a central government development of in-house intelligence units, business intelligence committee. training in competitive intelligence for It is within this context of significant growth government officers). The intent of these in government led competitive intelligence programs is to ensure that the department has activity that this article is set. This article the ability to develop competitive intelligence 51 that can be used either to assist companies or provide Canadian organizations with help the department make decisions. 2) intelligence that will make them more Programs designed to help companies develop competitive or use the skills to develop policy their own competitive intelligence. The author and programs that will enhance the economic notes several of the articles listed above performance of the region or sector. written about the government providing competitive intelligence resources and training a) Personal/department: Training geared to local companies so that they can develop around helping officers learn how to use their own competitive intelligence (Calof and intelligence to assist the Brouard, 2004 and Dedijier 1994 in particular department/agency. The write extensively about this). agencies/departments mentioned in In spite of the limitations listed above, there Table 1 have specific sectoral or have been a plethora of programs developed in regional development responsibilities. Canada that are focused on developing As a result, the focus for the intelligence to assist in both regional and training/skills development was on sectoral (industry) economic development. using these skills to help develop These were reviewed for the writing of this appropriate industry policy. Examples article and examined to determine their focus of this include Industry Canada (departmental intelligence development vs receiving intelligence training to help corporate intelligence development). In looking in the development of sectoral at the mandate of the programs, reviewing assistance programs. NRCan (National reports about them (where available) and Resources Canada) had a module on talking to those familiar with the program, intelligence to help in selecting the further enhancements to the classification appropriate research and development scheme mentioned above were made. Table 1 programs to focus on for industrial provides a list of those departments and development. Agriculture Canada had agencies and the type of programs they have a project related to intelligence training had. This list is compiled from the authors’ that was focused on identifying sectors direct experience either in developing and of the agriculture industry for further delivering the program or knowledge of the development in a 2020 exercise. program through academic research. As such it b) Helping others: Several government is not a comprehensive list but can be seen as a departments have used intelligence convenience sample that is being used to training to assist in developing skills examine the ability to categorize and later that would enable them to better assess programs. The programs listed are provide intelligence to Canadian divided into the following categories: companies. Examples include the Department of Foreign Affairs, which 3.1 Government programs aimed at had provided intelligence training to enhancing their own ability to develop most trade officers since 1993 to help competitive intelligence them better serve Canadian exporters. Nova Scotia Business Inc. and STEP This category covers competitive intelligence (Saskatchewan Trade and Export training that the government (federal or Partnership) have taken extensive provincial) had customized to their skills training in intelligence as both organizations’ needs to help their personnel these organizations have the provision develop intelligence skills. Some are of the of intelligence to local companies as classic introduction to competitive intelligence part of their mandate. variety, while others allow participants to run an intelligence application (project) as part of The two categories (personal/department and the training. The general intent of the training helping others) are not mutually exclusive. For is to enable the government officers to develop example, the National Research Council or enhance their understanding of what established a technical intelligence unit that competitive intelligence is and work on key helped the department develop industrial intelligence skills such as planning intelligence policy, helped officers make recommendations projects, collecting information for intelligence, on technology investments and also helped analysis and communication to assist in their Canadian technology companies directly. Also, job and either contribute to sectoral or regional although training is mentioned above, it is not economic development by using these skills to 52 the only element of the programs: STEP and intelligence units while NSBI (Nova Scotia the NRC (mentioned above) have established Business Inc.) included it within their mandate infrastructure that includes specific and developed materials around it. Table 1 Canadian Federal and Provincial Government Department and Agencies Competitive Intelligence Programs by Program Category. X indicates that the program was run/sponsored by the department or agency identified. The programs and departments/agencies in this table are not a comprehensive list of all programs in competitive intelligence run in Canada, but they are the ones that the author of this paper is familiar with either through research done on Canadian intelligence programs (with Francois Brouard) or through involvement either in running the program or evaluating it for the department/agency. The programs are also limited to those that were run by departments with economic related mandates. This table is used to demonstrate the breadth of programs run in Canada and to provide a demonstration of the program categorization method proposed in this article. Canadian Federal Enhancing their own Sponsored by the government for industry Programs to help Government (department's) ability and others to develop intelligence communities departments and to develop intelligence develop Personal/ Helping Intro. Joint Company Trade show agencies intelligence department others Skills projects projects intelligence Agriculture Canada x x x x Atlantic Canada x x x x Opportunities Agency Canadian Food Inspection x x Agency Department of Foreign x x Affairs Environment Canada x Export Development x Corporation Industry Canada x x x National Research Council x x x Natural Resources Canada x Office of the National x Science Advisor The Alliance for Sector x x Councils Western Economic x x x x Diversification Provincial Government departments and agencies Alberta Agriculture x x x x x x Alberta Economic x x x x x x Development Alberta Energy Research x Alberta Innovation and x x Science Alberta Treasury Board x and Finance Manitoba Agriculture, Food x and Rural Development Ministry of Economic x x Development and Trade Ontario Newfoundland Advanced x x Technologies Industries Nova Scotia Agriculture x Nova Scotia Business Inc. x x x x x Ontario Cultural Heritage x Saskatchewan Advanced x Technology Saskatchewan Trade & x Export Partnership 53 3.2 Programs that are sponsored by industry in Japan. The program involved providing a basic introduction the government for industry and others to intelligence (two-day program to develop competitive intelligence. involving introduction to intelligence, Federal and provincial governments how to collect information, planning for throughout Canada have sponsored a myriad of intelligence and analysis) to all programs across Canada designed to help participants who were then put in Canadian organizations develop and enhance project teams (each team had industry, their competitive intelligence skills. Some of association and government these have been geographically focused (offered representation) with each team in one or more regions to help develop and developing intelligence on the Japanese enhance the local economy) and some have imported beef market. The final been sectorally focused, providing training and intelligence product (the combination of intelligence assistance to companies in each of the team’s intelligence reports) multiple regions but in a specific sector (for was then shared with all participants. example training for agriculture companies or c) Company projects: Company projects training for technology companies). While are similar to the introduction to sponsored programs have been given to a broad CI/Skills development training but also number of sectors, the two most frequent involve participants developing and sectors for sponsored programs have been running an intelligence application on agriculture and technology. In work that the behalf of their organization as part of author has done with other governments the the training. These programs start with same two sectors have also been the most one to two days training and then frequent focus for sponsored intelligence participants go back to their programs. organization, develop an intelligence plan (which is discussed with the a) Introduction to CI/skills development: program trainer) and then have weekly These types of programs introduce mentoring sessions with the trainer as participants to the concept of they work on their intelligence project. competitive intelligence and the skills At the end of the program (normally one and organizational requirements to month) all participants gather again develop intelligence. These programs with the trainer to discuss their have ranged from one-hour keynote experiences. For some of these project addresses as part of major government sessions, participants have both the events (for example the Manitoba trainer and a government officer Department of Agriculture and Rural helping them on the project. An Development program and Ontario example of this type of program is the Economic Development had Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency intelligence keynote talks as part of (ACOA) sponsored program that was industry events) or as long as two day focused sectorally on technology introductions to competitive companies on the East Coast of intelligence programs such as some of Canada. ACOA and the trainer provide those sponsored by Alberta Economic the training and project support to Development. companies in Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. b) Joint government and industry projects: John’s (Newfoundland) and Fredericton Joint projects bring industry, (New Brunswick). association and government together to d) Trade-show intelligence: A cooperative work together on intelligence project trade show intelligence approach was with results being shared amongst all developed which combined small and participants. An example of this is medium sized companies, appropriate Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural associations, federal and/or provincial development, which sponsored an government officers in a training intelligence program that brought program focused on a specific trade together industry, association and show. All participants were given trade government participants. The joint show intelligence training. The training project was to develop intelligence on involved two days of training both on opportunities for the Alberta beef 54 competitive intelligence and trade show 3.3 Programs sponsored by the intelligence. For the training, specific government to help communities materials from the trade show they develop competitive intelligence for were attending were included in the local economic development training material. For example, in This was a program developed to help small training for the bio-technology trade communities harness the knowledge within show, participants were given a list of communities to develop their own economic exhibitors that were going to the show, development plan using intelligence. In the a list of all seminars, workshops, program, community leaders, local business presentations and also social events. As owners, government officials and others were part of the training program, brought together in a facilitated program, participants were asked to develop taught about competitive intelligence and were trade show intelligence plans for the then put in groups to develop the intelligence trade show that all program needed to support their region’s competitive participants were going to (for example advantage. All of this was then used to develop Foodex in Japan, Fancy Food Show in a regional economic development plan San Francisco, Bio in Washington) and designed by the program participants and then to send the plan to the program trainer. presented to the community at large. The The trainer then provided feedback and program involved multiple training sessions additional guidance to participants. and intelligence projects and was done over an Government and association extended period (nine months). The program participants helped the companies was designed to help small communities execute their projects as well as develop a long term economic development running their own applications and the plan based on identifying their competitive consultant/trainer also assisted. The advantage(s) and the intelligence required to approach was run at several trade exploit it. Local community media have written shows and helped companies identify extensively about the success of the program in opportunities, assess markets, helped their region (see Dalman 2005 for an example associations identify better ways to of the program in Humboldt, Saskatchewan). A serve their members and government more detailed description of the program can officers identify better programs and be found in Calof et al. (2010). policies. One of the trade show programs from a technology trade show 4. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE was written up in Calof and Fox, 2003 PROGRAM IMPACT ON REGIONAL and provides details on the AND SECTORAL ECONOMIC organization of the program. Several DEVELOPMENT provincial and federal departments and agencies have sponsored trade show Section 3 provided a method to categorize intelligence programs across a broad government competitive intelligence programs. number of sectors. These include Nova Given that the programs mentioned above are Scotia Business Inc., Agriculture designed to lead to regional or sectoral Canada, Alberta Economic economic development, this section looks at Development, Western Economic documents generated by the program that Diversification and Alberta would indicate that they had some sort of Agriculture. Trade show intelligence is economic impact. an example of a program that can be regionally and sectorally focused. It is 4.1 Community economic sectorally on the specific event and development programs regionally in terms the regional One of the community economic development authority sponsoring the training. programs (in Humboldt, Saskatchewan) was subjected to a full program review within a year of the program delivery. The purpose of the program was to transfer both skills that could be used to develop an economic development plan for the community that would lead to economic development and also 55 intelligence skills that could be used to help that was evaluated. There were other program participants in their organizations. community economic development programs The program review, done by Impact Research but no evaluations were done, therefore this Consulting Ltd (Kehring 2006) asked several section can only conclude that for the one questions about knowledge gained and program reviewed, a positive economic impact economic development. Amongst the question was found at the regional (local) level. asked: 4.2 Sponsored programs for industry “Do you think that the process of creating Despite the large number of sponsored the Action Humboldt Economic programs for industry in Canada there has not Development Plan has produced positive been a formal program review according to the gains in community capacity building organizations contacted for this article. knowledge and skills (including facilitation, Accordingly, the link between these sponsored competitive business intelligence, and programs and regional and sectoral economic networking)?” development is based more on the post-training reports provided by the sponsoring A total of 95.2% of program participants organizations and the anecdotal evidence in responded yes to the program reviewer. these reports in the form of participant comments gathered as part of the program “Do you think the creation of the Action assessment. Humboldt Economic Development Plan has One report written up in Alberta and contributed in positive, tangible ways to the published in Alberta Treasury Board and economic development of the region?” Finance documents (2006) assessed the project intelligence program success using their A total of 90% of program participants organization’s metrics for the program. The responded yes to this question. article noted that 88% of the companies that attended the competitive intelligence course “Were you able to increase your business or did undertake an intelligence project (a professional opportunities as a direct result measure of success for this government of your involvement with the Action agency). Comments in the report included: Humboldt Economic Development Plan?” “One company noted that the process was A total of 60% of program participants valuable…. A second company confirmed responded yes to this question that they had sought out additional Participants were asked to list specific information leading up to a conference and benefits attributable to the program. Those it had prepared them to more effectively identified by participants included: New discuss their needs with others that could residents moving to the region, new businesses provide them with information. A third starting up, increased employment noted that they had completed a process opportunities, employee retention and the that led them to refocus their marketing development of regional partnerships. efforts in a slightly different direction. The program review concluded with the following statement “The potential for “All indicated that they found the process economic development has been enhanced in valuable. One company indicated that they the Humboldt region due to the creation and would like three additional members of the the implementation of the Economic team to take the training with another Development Plan. There have been direct and company saying ‘I was able to gain significant results in the region due to the considerable information/intelligence…as a initiative.” (Kehring 2006, p. 23) result of the training’ … Finally, one Collectively, the answers to the evaluation company reported that the training session questions coupled with the evaluators overall ‘led to discussion across divisions on how conclusions and analysis provide support for [company name] could advance its CI positive regional economic benefits arising infrastructure.’” (p. 86) from the Humboldt community intelligence program that was sponsored by the In the case of one of the joint programs (in government. Unfortunately, this was the only which government, industry and associations community economic development program worked jointly on a specific intelligence 56 application) a post program review had companies and the association itself in industry participants estimate the value to acquiring more reliable information in less them (industry) as being in the six figure time. It is something that we will use again and range. Once again this provides support for recommend to our members.” economic value at both a regional (provincial) As a final measure of program impact, some and sectoral level. of the government officers that were in charge In terms of anecdotal evidence from officer of the programs (public servants) noted that reports on the program and participant the program had been the recipient of various evaluations, here are a few examples mainly recognition awards. These awards include from the trade show intelligence programs. department based awards (referred to as They are from a review of an intelligence Minister’s Awards) as well as provincial program event given on the East Coast of awards (referred to as Premier’s Awards). Canada. For the Houston Offshore Trade Show Readers are cautioned that while the results the following comments were included in the indicate positive economic impacts of these officers’ report “The training, mentoring and economic or sectoral intelligence programs, support at the trade show enabled me to do with the exception of the program review on three months of work in four days in Houston”. the community economic development program The same review also looked at participant and the valuation exercise for the joint comments from another East Coast program intelligence exercise, all other results are focused on the plastics industry for the either from officer reports or are anecdotal. National Plastics Exhibition trade show (NPE). There is no way to tell whether the comments The following quotes were in the report “I was in the reports and articles about the project able to use CI techniques to optimize my info intelligence and trade show intelligence are gathering exercise. A ‘focused approach’ was, I reflective of the majority of program believe, the key to a productive two days… The participants and not just biased towards those show was huge and would have been that were most satisfied. Nevertheless, the overwhelming if not for the CI preparations.” following can be concluded: A report on a trade show intelligence program that focused on SIAL (a food show in 1. For the small community economic Paris) included the following quotes from development program, a positive program participants: regional economic development impact was shown through the program “I really enjoyed it. The process made me evaluation results provided in this think carefully about what I was trying to article. find and what decisions needed to be made.” 2. For the joint intelligence project in Alberta (beef industry) a positive “It was valuable as a planning tool because economic impact both sectorally (beef) nobody realized how big the Paris SIAL and regionally (Alberta) was indicated was.” according to the reviewers’ estimation of the value of the intelligence “This is something that can be a value to produced. For #1 and #2 these are a nearly everybody. It should be required of matter of public record from those that go to large trade shows. It is government conducted program applicable to both governments and the reviews. private sector….The training allowed me to 3. For all other sectoral and regional do much more at Paris Sial (food trade show) programs presented in this article that than I could have done under normal had anecdotal comments (and there circumstances. The process yielded more were many) they (those that provided and better information.” the anecdotal examples) indicated that they had received some sort of economic Finally, a report out of Alberta after a trade benefit. show intelligence program for BIO (bio- technology trade show) included the following 5. CONCULSIONS AND AREAS FOR comments from the association that had jointly FUTURE RESEARCH sponsored the training with the government “We all benefited from this process a lot…We This article has sought to classify government will do this again.” “The process assisted our competitive intelligence programs and 57 initiatives used in Canada and also examine ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS the impact of these programs on economic development. Three broad categories were The article was prepared within the identified along with several subcategories in framework of the Basic Research Program at each: the National Research University Higher School of Economics and supported within the 1. Government programs aimed at framework of a subsidy by the Russian enhancing their own ability to develop Academic Excellence Project '5-100'. competitive intelligence 2. Programs that are sponsored by the 6. REFERENCES government for industry and others to Alberta Treasury Board and Finance .(2006). develop competitive intelligence and 3. Programs sponsored by the government Alberta Heritage Trust Fund Magazine. An to help communities develop experiment in problem solving. competitive intelligence for local Bisson, C. (2014). Exploring competitive economic development. intelligence practices of French local public agricultural organizations. Journal of This article has sought to provide examples of Intelligence Studies in Business. 4 (2), 5-29. intelligence programs and initiatives under Calof, Jonathan L. (2014). Evaluating the impact each one of these categories. 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Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences

Journal of Intelligence Studies in BusinessMay 31, 2016

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Abstract

Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information: https://ojs.hh.se/index.php/JISIB/index Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences a,b,c Jonathan Calof a b Telfer School of Management, Canada; North-West University, South Africa; National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation; [email protected] To cite this article: Calof, J. (2016) Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences. Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business. Vol 6, No 1. Pages 48-58. Article URL: https://ojs.hh.se/index.php/JISIB/article/view/142 PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article is Open Access, in compliance with Strategy 2 of the 2002 Budapest Open Access Initiative, which states: Scholars need the means to launch a new generation of journals committed to open access, and to help existing journals that elect to make the transition to open access. Because journal articles should be disseminated as widely as possible, these new journals will no longer invoke copyright to restrict access to and use of the material they publish. Instead they will use copyright and other tools to ensure permanent open access to all the articles they publish. Because price is a barrier to access, these new journals will not charge subscription or access fees, and will turn to other methods for covering their expenses. 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Journal of Intelligence Studies in Business Vol. 6, No. 1 (2016) pp. 48-58 Open Access: Freely available at: https://ojs.hh.se/ Government sponsored competitive intelligence for regional and sectoral economic development: Canadian experiences a,b,c Jonathan Calof a b c Telfer School of Management, Canada; North-West University, South Africa; National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation; [email protected] Received 2 February 2016; accepted 20 May 2016 ABSTRACT Can competitive intelligence (CI) be used to assist in regional and sectoral economic development? This article looks at intelligence initiatives (largely around training) sponsored by various government departments and agencies in Canada and their link to regional and sectoral economic development. The article provides examples of the kind of intelligence initiatives that have been used in Canada to support regional and sectoral (industrial) economic development. The article proposes a method for categorizing these regional and sectoral intelligence programs and suggests methods for assessing the impact of these programs on regional and sectoral economic development. The Canadian programs are divided into three broad categories 1) Government programs aimed at enhancing their own ability to develop competitive intelligence 2) Programs that are sponsored by the government for industry and others to develop competitive intelligence and 3) Programs sponsored by the government to help communities develop competitive intelligence for local economic development. Positive economic impacts were identified using program review documents, government officer reports and anecdotal evidence from program participant surveys. However, while the evidence does support positive impact a more comprehensive approach to evaluating these impacts should be considered in the future. KEYWORDS competitive intelligence, economic development, economic intelligence, program impact, program review External environmental changes (the focus of 1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW CI): Making better decisions based on a proper understanding of the competitive environment “have brought new opportunities to regional (present and future) is at the heart of industries while simultaneously exposing competitive intelligence (CI). Competitive them to increased competition both intelligence assists organizations in developing domestically and internationally” (Stinson a proactive approach that identifies and 2006, p. 4). responds to changes in the competitive environmental, helping organizations It has also been identified as critical in (companies, governments, universities, designing economic policy and programs (Calof associations and others) thrive in turbulent et al., 2015). times. This need for understanding the The objective of this paper is to look at how external environment and its impact on government competitive intelligence initiatives success has been echoed in the regional have been used in Canada to enhance economic economic development planning literature. development at both the regional and sectoral level. The intent of presenting both programs projects (both government and industry and evidence of program impacts is to working together to develop stimulate a global discussion on how regional competitive intelligence). and sectoral economic development can be 3. Programs sponsored by the government enhanced through government competitive to help communities develop intelligence activities. It is hoped that competitive intelligence or local researchers from other countries that read this economic development. This category article will be encouraged to develop similar involves programs sponsored by the articles and provide additional program government aimed at assisting small examples that can be shared amongst the communities in developing competitive competitive intelligence and government intelligence capabilities for local program communities. economic development Governments in Canada both at the Federal and Provincial level have been involved in Programs and initiatives in these three competitive intelligence initiatives largely categories are then examined for evidence of since the mid 1990s. In this article, several of economic impact at the regional and/or sectoral these programs will be described and (industry) level. discussed. This article uses, as its base for discussing these initiatives, a comprehensive 2. GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT IN review of competitive intelligence in Canada COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE (Calof and Brouard, 2004) and programs that the author of this article has extensive Government involvement in competitive knowledge about either through active intelligence has been studies and written about involvement in them (e.g. training programs for many years. Dedijer (1994) wrote about the delivered by the author, organizational French government’s involvement in systems created by the author etc.) or because competitive intelligence. Much has been the author reviewed and/or studied them for written about the French involvement in CI academic purposes (for example, the National including the use of and development of CI for Research Council’s competitive intelligence government economic policy purposes, French unit study as reported in Calof, 2014). While government CI assistance to companies and this could lead to possible biases in terms of the associations, as well as joint intelligence assistance involving chambers of commerce, comprehensiveness of programs reviewed for this article, nevertheless in depth knowledge of industry association and companies (Dedijer the programs and the government officers 1994, Horne and Parks, 2004, Bisson, 2014). responsible for the programs are required to Similarly, Calof and Brouard (2004) looked at properly analyze and classify them. Canadian Federal and Provincial involvement in Canadian competitive intelligence and Over one hundred government programs and intelligence initiatives are examined in Julyeta et al. (2014) looked at examples of this article. These are divided into three broad government involvement in competitive categories that are discussed in more detail in intelligence in Indonesia. Section 3 (including the rationale behind these These and other authors have looked at the categories): importance of these activities as a stimulus to regional and sectoral economic development. 1. Government programs aimed at For example, Julyeta et al. wrote ““It was then enhancing their own ability to develop decided to used Competitive Intelligence not competitive intelligence. This includes only to promote new economic and training initiatives (e.g. sending development conditions, but to move to local government officers for competitive policy to promote in some key positions people intelligence training) and creating which will have a Competitive Intelligence intelligence units. background and which will be able to facilitate 2. Programs that are sponsored by a global move of the local stakeholders to new government for industry and others to horizons.” (2014, p. 38). Bisson (2014, p. 10), in develop competitive intelligence. This looking at the work of Guesnier (2004), category includes providing or Momagri (2012) and Massmann and Quonniam sponsoring training in competitive (2010), wrote: intelligence for Canadian companies (and associations) and joint intelligence 50 “[these authors have] pointed out the looks to provide readers with information on correlation between territorial governance government competitive intelligence initiatives and economic performance, and in this way in Canada, in particular those geared towards CI activities should lead to better territorial regional and/or sectoral economic development economic results. A lack of information, for and their economic impact. There are three example, on price or technology lowers the caveats on the programs discussed in this price of farmers’ yields.” article: Calof and Brouard (2004) looked at the 1. This article does not cover all Canadian Canadian experience with competitive programs that use intelligence for intelligence between 1989 and 2004. In their regional or sectoral economic research, they looked at competitive development. It is not truly intelligence growth in terms of academic comprehensive. It includes only ones development (courses and research), corporate that the author has been involved with, activity, associations, consulting and either through studying them, running government activities. The authors noted that them or advising the organization in there had been significant development in the charge of them. This limitation is made 1990s in terms of government involvement in to ensure that the author has sufficient competitive intelligence. For example, in the information to discuss, assess and mid 1990s the Department of Foreign Affairs properly classify the programs. developed an intelligence program for 2. Although this article covers programs producing competitive intelligence for between 1993 and 2015, the majority of Canadian companies and departmental the programs discussed occurred before officials. Agriculture Canada established 2006. This arose as from 2006-2015 market intelligence within their Market and significant budget cutting arose both at Industry Services Branch for providing policy the federal and provincial levels, advice within the department. Industry making the funding of the programs Canada brought in a competitive intelligence discussed in this article difficult. training program to enhance their officers’ 3. This article only looks at competitive skills. The National Research Council intelligence programs and initiatives established a technical intelligence unit in associated with economic departments. their organization to provide technical It does not look at programs associated intelligence to departmental officers for with national security and national decision making and policy development. intelligence agencies (for example Provincially, Alberta Economic Development Canadian Security and Intelligence brought in competitive intelligence training for Service – CSIS, Communications their officers and also made it available to their Security Establishment – CSE). industry clients. Alberta also set up a joint market intelligence committee, which had 3. CANADIAN GOVERNMENT representation from various federal and ACTIVITIES IN COMPETITIVE provincial economic departments. In INTELLIGENCE Saskatchewan, STEP (Saskatchewan Trade and Export Program) developed an intelligence One of the contributions of this article is that it department and established market attempts to develop a classification scheme for intelligence as one of their offerings to government competitive intelligence Saskatchewan business. In Nova Scotia, Nova initiatives. In reviewing past articles on Scotia Business Inc. also brought in government involvement in competitive competitive intelligence training and intelligence (described in Section 2) the author established market intelligence as a product notes that programs and initiatives tend to fall offered to Nova Scotia Business. In Quebec, into one of two broad categories: 1) Programs each Quebec ministry had an officer designed to help the government develop responsible for competitive intelligence. This competitive intelligence (for example officer reported to a central government development of in-house intelligence units, business intelligence committee. training in competitive intelligence for It is within this context of significant growth government officers). The intent of these in government led competitive intelligence programs is to ensure that the department has activity that this article is set. This article the ability to develop competitive intelligence 51 that can be used either to assist companies or provide Canadian organizations with help the department make decisions. 2) intelligence that will make them more Programs designed to help companies develop competitive or use the skills to develop policy their own competitive intelligence. The author and programs that will enhance the economic notes several of the articles listed above performance of the region or sector. written about the government providing competitive intelligence resources and training a) Personal/department: Training geared to local companies so that they can develop around helping officers learn how to use their own competitive intelligence (Calof and intelligence to assist the Brouard, 2004 and Dedijier 1994 in particular department/agency. The write extensively about this). agencies/departments mentioned in In spite of the limitations listed above, there Table 1 have specific sectoral or have been a plethora of programs developed in regional development responsibilities. Canada that are focused on developing As a result, the focus for the intelligence to assist in both regional and training/skills development was on sectoral (industry) economic development. using these skills to help develop These were reviewed for the writing of this appropriate industry policy. Examples article and examined to determine their focus of this include Industry Canada (departmental intelligence development vs receiving intelligence training to help corporate intelligence development). In looking in the development of sectoral at the mandate of the programs, reviewing assistance programs. NRCan (National reports about them (where available) and Resources Canada) had a module on talking to those familiar with the program, intelligence to help in selecting the further enhancements to the classification appropriate research and development scheme mentioned above were made. Table 1 programs to focus on for industrial provides a list of those departments and development. Agriculture Canada had agencies and the type of programs they have a project related to intelligence training had. This list is compiled from the authors’ that was focused on identifying sectors direct experience either in developing and of the agriculture industry for further delivering the program or knowledge of the development in a 2020 exercise. program through academic research. As such it b) Helping others: Several government is not a comprehensive list but can be seen as a departments have used intelligence convenience sample that is being used to training to assist in developing skills examine the ability to categorize and later that would enable them to better assess programs. The programs listed are provide intelligence to Canadian divided into the following categories: companies. Examples include the Department of Foreign Affairs, which 3.1 Government programs aimed at had provided intelligence training to enhancing their own ability to develop most trade officers since 1993 to help competitive intelligence them better serve Canadian exporters. Nova Scotia Business Inc. and STEP This category covers competitive intelligence (Saskatchewan Trade and Export training that the government (federal or Partnership) have taken extensive provincial) had customized to their skills training in intelligence as both organizations’ needs to help their personnel these organizations have the provision develop intelligence skills. Some are of the of intelligence to local companies as classic introduction to competitive intelligence part of their mandate. variety, while others allow participants to run an intelligence application (project) as part of The two categories (personal/department and the training. The general intent of the training helping others) are not mutually exclusive. For is to enable the government officers to develop example, the National Research Council or enhance their understanding of what established a technical intelligence unit that competitive intelligence is and work on key helped the department develop industrial intelligence skills such as planning intelligence policy, helped officers make recommendations projects, collecting information for intelligence, on technology investments and also helped analysis and communication to assist in their Canadian technology companies directly. Also, job and either contribute to sectoral or regional although training is mentioned above, it is not economic development by using these skills to 52 the only element of the programs: STEP and intelligence units while NSBI (Nova Scotia the NRC (mentioned above) have established Business Inc.) included it within their mandate infrastructure that includes specific and developed materials around it. Table 1 Canadian Federal and Provincial Government Department and Agencies Competitive Intelligence Programs by Program Category. X indicates that the program was run/sponsored by the department or agency identified. The programs and departments/agencies in this table are not a comprehensive list of all programs in competitive intelligence run in Canada, but they are the ones that the author of this paper is familiar with either through research done on Canadian intelligence programs (with Francois Brouard) or through involvement either in running the program or evaluating it for the department/agency. The programs are also limited to those that were run by departments with economic related mandates. This table is used to demonstrate the breadth of programs run in Canada and to provide a demonstration of the program categorization method proposed in this article. Canadian Federal Enhancing their own Sponsored by the government for industry Programs to help Government (department's) ability and others to develop intelligence communities departments and to develop intelligence develop Personal/ Helping Intro. Joint Company Trade show agencies intelligence department others Skills projects projects intelligence Agriculture Canada x x x x Atlantic Canada x x x x Opportunities Agency Canadian Food Inspection x x Agency Department of Foreign x x Affairs Environment Canada x Export Development x Corporation Industry Canada x x x National Research Council x x x Natural Resources Canada x Office of the National x Science Advisor The Alliance for Sector x x Councils Western Economic x x x x Diversification Provincial Government departments and agencies Alberta Agriculture x x x x x x Alberta Economic x x x x x x Development Alberta Energy Research x Alberta Innovation and x x Science Alberta Treasury Board x and Finance Manitoba Agriculture, Food x and Rural Development Ministry of Economic x x Development and Trade Ontario Newfoundland Advanced x x Technologies Industries Nova Scotia Agriculture x Nova Scotia Business Inc. x x x x x Ontario Cultural Heritage x Saskatchewan Advanced x Technology Saskatchewan Trade & x Export Partnership 53 3.2 Programs that are sponsored by industry in Japan. The program involved providing a basic introduction the government for industry and others to intelligence (two-day program to develop competitive intelligence. involving introduction to intelligence, Federal and provincial governments how to collect information, planning for throughout Canada have sponsored a myriad of intelligence and analysis) to all programs across Canada designed to help participants who were then put in Canadian organizations develop and enhance project teams (each team had industry, their competitive intelligence skills. Some of association and government these have been geographically focused (offered representation) with each team in one or more regions to help develop and developing intelligence on the Japanese enhance the local economy) and some have imported beef market. The final been sectorally focused, providing training and intelligence product (the combination of intelligence assistance to companies in each of the team’s intelligence reports) multiple regions but in a specific sector (for was then shared with all participants. example training for agriculture companies or c) Company projects: Company projects training for technology companies). While are similar to the introduction to sponsored programs have been given to a broad CI/Skills development training but also number of sectors, the two most frequent involve participants developing and sectors for sponsored programs have been running an intelligence application on agriculture and technology. In work that the behalf of their organization as part of author has done with other governments the the training. These programs start with same two sectors have also been the most one to two days training and then frequent focus for sponsored intelligence participants go back to their programs. organization, develop an intelligence plan (which is discussed with the a) Introduction to CI/skills development: program trainer) and then have weekly These types of programs introduce mentoring sessions with the trainer as participants to the concept of they work on their intelligence project. competitive intelligence and the skills At the end of the program (normally one and organizational requirements to month) all participants gather again develop intelligence. These programs with the trainer to discuss their have ranged from one-hour keynote experiences. For some of these project addresses as part of major government sessions, participants have both the events (for example the Manitoba trainer and a government officer Department of Agriculture and Rural helping them on the project. An Development program and Ontario example of this type of program is the Economic Development had Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency intelligence keynote talks as part of (ACOA) sponsored program that was industry events) or as long as two day focused sectorally on technology introductions to competitive companies on the East Coast of intelligence programs such as some of Canada. ACOA and the trainer provide those sponsored by Alberta Economic the training and project support to Development. companies in Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. b) Joint government and industry projects: John’s (Newfoundland) and Fredericton Joint projects bring industry, (New Brunswick). association and government together to d) Trade-show intelligence: A cooperative work together on intelligence project trade show intelligence approach was with results being shared amongst all developed which combined small and participants. An example of this is medium sized companies, appropriate Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural associations, federal and/or provincial development, which sponsored an government officers in a training intelligence program that brought program focused on a specific trade together industry, association and show. All participants were given trade government participants. The joint show intelligence training. The training project was to develop intelligence on involved two days of training both on opportunities for the Alberta beef 54 competitive intelligence and trade show 3.3 Programs sponsored by the intelligence. For the training, specific government to help communities materials from the trade show they develop competitive intelligence for were attending were included in the local economic development training material. For example, in This was a program developed to help small training for the bio-technology trade communities harness the knowledge within show, participants were given a list of communities to develop their own economic exhibitors that were going to the show, development plan using intelligence. In the a list of all seminars, workshops, program, community leaders, local business presentations and also social events. As owners, government officials and others were part of the training program, brought together in a facilitated program, participants were asked to develop taught about competitive intelligence and were trade show intelligence plans for the then put in groups to develop the intelligence trade show that all program needed to support their region’s competitive participants were going to (for example advantage. All of this was then used to develop Foodex in Japan, Fancy Food Show in a regional economic development plan San Francisco, Bio in Washington) and designed by the program participants and then to send the plan to the program trainer. presented to the community at large. The The trainer then provided feedback and program involved multiple training sessions additional guidance to participants. and intelligence projects and was done over an Government and association extended period (nine months). The program participants helped the companies was designed to help small communities execute their projects as well as develop a long term economic development running their own applications and the plan based on identifying their competitive consultant/trainer also assisted. The advantage(s) and the intelligence required to approach was run at several trade exploit it. Local community media have written shows and helped companies identify extensively about the success of the program in opportunities, assess markets, helped their region (see Dalman 2005 for an example associations identify better ways to of the program in Humboldt, Saskatchewan). A serve their members and government more detailed description of the program can officers identify better programs and be found in Calof et al. (2010). policies. One of the trade show programs from a technology trade show 4. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE was written up in Calof and Fox, 2003 PROGRAM IMPACT ON REGIONAL and provides details on the AND SECTORAL ECONOMIC organization of the program. Several DEVELOPMENT provincial and federal departments and agencies have sponsored trade show Section 3 provided a method to categorize intelligence programs across a broad government competitive intelligence programs. number of sectors. These include Nova Given that the programs mentioned above are Scotia Business Inc., Agriculture designed to lead to regional or sectoral Canada, Alberta Economic economic development, this section looks at Development, Western Economic documents generated by the program that Diversification and Alberta would indicate that they had some sort of Agriculture. Trade show intelligence is economic impact. an example of a program that can be regionally and sectorally focused. It is 4.1 Community economic sectorally on the specific event and development programs regionally in terms the regional One of the community economic development authority sponsoring the training. programs (in Humboldt, Saskatchewan) was subjected to a full program review within a year of the program delivery. The purpose of the program was to transfer both skills that could be used to develop an economic development plan for the community that would lead to economic development and also 55 intelligence skills that could be used to help that was evaluated. There were other program participants in their organizations. community economic development programs The program review, done by Impact Research but no evaluations were done, therefore this Consulting Ltd (Kehring 2006) asked several section can only conclude that for the one questions about knowledge gained and program reviewed, a positive economic impact economic development. Amongst the question was found at the regional (local) level. asked: 4.2 Sponsored programs for industry “Do you think that the process of creating Despite the large number of sponsored the Action Humboldt Economic programs for industry in Canada there has not Development Plan has produced positive been a formal program review according to the gains in community capacity building organizations contacted for this article. knowledge and skills (including facilitation, Accordingly, the link between these sponsored competitive business intelligence, and programs and regional and sectoral economic networking)?” development is based more on the post-training reports provided by the sponsoring A total of 95.2% of program participants organizations and the anecdotal evidence in responded yes to the program reviewer. these reports in the form of participant comments gathered as part of the program “Do you think the creation of the Action assessment. Humboldt Economic Development Plan has One report written up in Alberta and contributed in positive, tangible ways to the published in Alberta Treasury Board and economic development of the region?” Finance documents (2006) assessed the project intelligence program success using their A total of 90% of program participants organization’s metrics for the program. The responded yes to this question. article noted that 88% of the companies that attended the competitive intelligence course “Were you able to increase your business or did undertake an intelligence project (a professional opportunities as a direct result measure of success for this government of your involvement with the Action agency). Comments in the report included: Humboldt Economic Development Plan?” “One company noted that the process was A total of 60% of program participants valuable…. A second company confirmed responded yes to this question that they had sought out additional Participants were asked to list specific information leading up to a conference and benefits attributable to the program. Those it had prepared them to more effectively identified by participants included: New discuss their needs with others that could residents moving to the region, new businesses provide them with information. A third starting up, increased employment noted that they had completed a process opportunities, employee retention and the that led them to refocus their marketing development of regional partnerships. efforts in a slightly different direction. The program review concluded with the following statement “The potential for “All indicated that they found the process economic development has been enhanced in valuable. One company indicated that they the Humboldt region due to the creation and would like three additional members of the the implementation of the Economic team to take the training with another Development Plan. There have been direct and company saying ‘I was able to gain significant results in the region due to the considerable information/intelligence…as a initiative.” (Kehring 2006, p. 23) result of the training’ … Finally, one Collectively, the answers to the evaluation company reported that the training session questions coupled with the evaluators overall ‘led to discussion across divisions on how conclusions and analysis provide support for [company name] could advance its CI positive regional economic benefits arising infrastructure.’” (p. 86) from the Humboldt community intelligence program that was sponsored by the In the case of one of the joint programs (in government. Unfortunately, this was the only which government, industry and associations community economic development program worked jointly on a specific intelligence 56 application) a post program review had companies and the association itself in industry participants estimate the value to acquiring more reliable information in less them (industry) as being in the six figure time. It is something that we will use again and range. Once again this provides support for recommend to our members.” economic value at both a regional (provincial) As a final measure of program impact, some and sectoral level. of the government officers that were in charge In terms of anecdotal evidence from officer of the programs (public servants) noted that reports on the program and participant the program had been the recipient of various evaluations, here are a few examples mainly recognition awards. These awards include from the trade show intelligence programs. department based awards (referred to as They are from a review of an intelligence Minister’s Awards) as well as provincial program event given on the East Coast of awards (referred to as Premier’s Awards). Canada. For the Houston Offshore Trade Show Readers are cautioned that while the results the following comments were included in the indicate positive economic impacts of these officers’ report “The training, mentoring and economic or sectoral intelligence programs, support at the trade show enabled me to do with the exception of the program review on three months of work in four days in Houston”. the community economic development program The same review also looked at participant and the valuation exercise for the joint comments from another East Coast program intelligence exercise, all other results are focused on the plastics industry for the either from officer reports or are anecdotal. National Plastics Exhibition trade show (NPE). There is no way to tell whether the comments The following quotes were in the report “I was in the reports and articles about the project able to use CI techniques to optimize my info intelligence and trade show intelligence are gathering exercise. A ‘focused approach’ was, I reflective of the majority of program believe, the key to a productive two days… The participants and not just biased towards those show was huge and would have been that were most satisfied. Nevertheless, the overwhelming if not for the CI preparations.” following can be concluded: A report on a trade show intelligence program that focused on SIAL (a food show in 1. For the small community economic Paris) included the following quotes from development program, a positive program participants: regional economic development impact was shown through the program “I really enjoyed it. The process made me evaluation results provided in this think carefully about what I was trying to article. find and what decisions needed to be made.” 2. For the joint intelligence project in Alberta (beef industry) a positive “It was valuable as a planning tool because economic impact both sectorally (beef) nobody realized how big the Paris SIAL and regionally (Alberta) was indicated was.” according to the reviewers’ estimation of the value of the intelligence “This is something that can be a value to produced. For #1 and #2 these are a nearly everybody. It should be required of matter of public record from those that go to large trade shows. It is government conducted program applicable to both governments and the reviews. private sector….The training allowed me to 3. For all other sectoral and regional do much more at Paris Sial (food trade show) programs presented in this article that than I could have done under normal had anecdotal comments (and there circumstances. The process yielded more were many) they (those that provided and better information.” the anecdotal examples) indicated that they had received some sort of economic Finally, a report out of Alberta after a trade benefit. show intelligence program for BIO (bio- technology trade show) included the following 5. CONCULSIONS AND AREAS FOR comments from the association that had jointly FUTURE RESEARCH sponsored the training with the government “We all benefited from this process a lot…We This article has sought to classify government will do this again.” “The process assisted our competitive intelligence programs and 57 initiatives used in Canada and also examine ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS the impact of these programs on economic development. Three broad categories were The article was prepared within the identified along with several subcategories in framework of the Basic Research Program at each: the National Research University Higher School of Economics and supported within the 1. 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