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Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives: From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre

Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives: From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre Loretta Fowler The 150th anniversary of the Sand Creek massacre occurred in 2014. Attempts to understand why the massacre happened have ignored or misrepresented the role of the Cheyennes and Arapahos in the events leading up to it. Studies have focused instead on the responsibility for it borne by individuals or the larger bureaucratic structures of the Indian Office or the army command. We can better understand what happened at Sand Creek and why it happened also by considering Cheyenne and Arapaho goals and political strategies. The analysis must begin with the 1851 treaty, which both reflected and molded Native perspectives on their relations with Americans for more than a decade. Agreeing to the Treaty of 1851 Arapahos and Cheyennes realized that the massive immigration to California and Oregon beginning in 1842 had damaged the buffalo range and reduced the size of the herds. And the influx of large numbers of Lakota Sioux in the North Platte country put more pressure on resources. The tribes needed trade goods and provisions from Americans to compensate for the reduction in game. They bought food from traders and http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The American Indian Quarterly University of Nebraska Press

Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives: From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre

The American Indian Quarterly , Volume 39 (4) – Oct 9, 2015

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Publisher
University of Nebraska Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 The University of Nebraska Press.
ISSN
1534-1828
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Abstract

Arapaho and Cheyenne Perspectives From the 1851 Treaty to the Sand Creek Massacre Loretta Fowler The 150th anniversary of the Sand Creek massacre occurred in 2014. Attempts to understand why the massacre happened have ignored or misrepresented the role of the Cheyennes and Arapahos in the events leading up to it. Studies have focused instead on the responsibility for it borne by individuals or the larger bureaucratic structures of the Indian Office or the army command. We can better understand what happened at Sand Creek and why it happened also by considering Cheyenne and Arapaho goals and political strategies. The analysis must begin with the 1851 treaty, which both reflected and molded Native perspectives on their relations with Americans for more than a decade. Agreeing to the Treaty of 1851 Arapahos and Cheyennes realized that the massive immigration to California and Oregon beginning in 1842 had damaged the buffalo range and reduced the size of the herds. And the influx of large numbers of Lakota Sioux in the North Platte country put more pressure on resources. The tribes needed trade goods and provisions from Americans to compensate for the reduction in game. They bought food from traders and

Journal

The American Indian QuarterlyUniversity of Nebraska Press

Published: Oct 9, 2015

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