Anti-Violence Iconographies of the Cage Diasporan Crossings and the (Un)Tethering of Subjectivities Annie Isabel Fukushima In 2000 the United States passed the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (tvpa), reinforcing national commitments to prevent human trafficking through anti-trafficking awareness efforts, provide legal relief for migrants and social services for all trafficking victims, and prosecute traffickers.1 The tvpa legislated human trafficking as a transnational crime and created a legal category for the trafficked and the traffickers. These legal maneuvers go handin-hand with local and transnational movements against human trafficking, colloquially described as "modern-day slavery." While both international2 and US governmental bodies agree that exploitation occurs in the economies of sex, labor, slavery, servitude, and debt bondage, their competing interests determine the enforcement of trafficking.3 Drawing upon an extensive existing literature on transnational human trafficking,4 I define human trafficking as a sociopolitical process codified by local, national, and international law shaped by perceptions of labor and migration5 and embedded in indentured mobility.6 Human trafficking is also imbricated in normative understandings of gender, sexuality,7 and gendered violence.8 In the twenty-first-century global economic system, the circulation of trafficked people through imagery sustains a narrative about human trafficking: subjects are depicted as confined behind cage-like
Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies – University of Nebraska Press
Published: Dec 23, 2015
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