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America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860-1900 (review)

America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860-1900 (review) Book Reviews Ruth Spack. America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860­1900. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002. 231 pp. James H. Cox America's Second Tongue is a study of the teaching of English as a second language to American Indian students in the last half of the nineteenth century. Spack establishes in the first chapter the ideological and pedagogical contexts that informed what occurred in English language classrooms in both reservation day schools and off-reservation boarding schools. Prevailing assumptions of those who developed and implemented English language pedagogy included, for example, that English was superior to Native languages in terms of allowing for intellectual inquiry, that language differences caused much of the conflict between Natives and non-Natives, that the English language promoted virtues and Native languages promoted vices, and that English was a vehicle both of Christian salvation and European American values, such as individualism and private property. Many non-Natives mistakenly expected, Spack explains, that English-speaking American Indians would automatically be one of the most clear signs of European cultural domination and the "advance of civilization." Instead, as she documents in later chapters, many students reinvented the enemy's language, to reference Joy Harjo http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Studies in American Indian Literatures University of Nebraska Press

America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860-1900 (review)

Studies in American Indian Literatures , Volume 16 (1) – May 4, 2004

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Publisher
University of Nebraska Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2004 James H. Cox
ISSN
1548-9590
Publisher site
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Abstract

Book Reviews Ruth Spack. America's Second Tongue: American Indian Education and the Ownership of English, 1860­1900. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2002. 231 pp. James H. Cox America's Second Tongue is a study of the teaching of English as a second language to American Indian students in the last half of the nineteenth century. Spack establishes in the first chapter the ideological and pedagogical contexts that informed what occurred in English language classrooms in both reservation day schools and off-reservation boarding schools. Prevailing assumptions of those who developed and implemented English language pedagogy included, for example, that English was superior to Native languages in terms of allowing for intellectual inquiry, that language differences caused much of the conflict between Natives and non-Natives, that the English language promoted virtues and Native languages promoted vices, and that English was a vehicle both of Christian salvation and European American values, such as individualism and private property. Many non-Natives mistakenly expected, Spack explains, that English-speaking American Indians would automatically be one of the most clear signs of European cultural domination and the "advance of civilization." Instead, as she documents in later chapters, many students reinvented the enemy's language, to reference Joy Harjo

Journal

Studies in American Indian LiteraturesUniversity of Nebraska Press

Published: May 4, 2004

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