K I N U K O M A E H A R A Y A M A Z A T O By the 1920s, many first-generation Okinawan immigrants in Hawai`i were faced with the problem of how to provide both a Japanese education and an American one for their Hawai`i-born children. Parents would usually send their children to Japanese-language school in Hawai`i. In addition, some would send one or more of them to Okinawa or mainland Japan for Nihon ryugaku; that is, "studying in Japan." It was also not unusual for many firstgeneration Okinawan immigrants to send their children for kuchiberashi; that is, "to reduce the number of mouths to feed." In Okinawa, children could live with grandparents inexpensively; parents could remain in Hawai`i meanwhile, working to earn money for their own return. The Nisei children (whether Japanese or Okinawan) who were educated in Japan and who later returned to Hawai`i were referred to as Kibei Nisei. Often they had problems assimilating back into the community after returning from Japan, especially if they had been sent to Okinawa or mainland Japan at an early age and had lived there for most of their youth. During the 1920s and
Manoa – University of Hawai'I Press
Published: Feb 26, 2009
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