Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You and Your Team.

Learn More →

Struggle for Democracy: Hong Kong Is Increasingly Mainlandized ( Dalu-hua 大陆化): Taiwan on the Road Toward Hongkong-ization ( Xianggang-hua /香港化)

Struggle for Democracy: Hong Kong Is Increasingly Mainlandized ( Dalu-hua 大陆化): Taiwan on the... 132 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 patternsofprotestinmid-QingChinawillbecomeacorrectivetothosewhoover emphasizetheconvergingandhomogenizingforcesinmodernhistory. DavidD.Buck David D. Buck is a professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin­Milwaukee. He is a former editor of the JournalofAsianStudies. StruggleforDemocracy:HongKongIsIncreasinglyMainlandized(Dalu-hua ):TaiwanontheRoadToward Hongkong-ization(Xianggang-hua/) SonnyShiu-hingLo.Competing Chinese Political Visions: Hong Kong versus Beijing on Democracy.SantaBarbara,CA:Praeger.2010.xii,294pp. Hardcover$59.95,isbn978-0-31336-505-8. "ItworriesmetothinkabouttheJune4th[BeijingMassacreofJune4,1989]," writesaNationalTaiwanUniversitystudenttoThe Liberty Times.1WithChina's stunningrisetoeconomicandmilitarypowerandthecurrentcloserelations betweenTaiwanandhergiantneighbor,manyTaiwanesearefearfulandanxious aboutwhatmighthappentothefreedomandsecurityoftheirislandnation.While TaiwanesewerepreviouslyreluctanttoexpresssupportfortheChinesepeople's prodemocracymovement,thisyearhundredsofTaiwan'scollegestudentsassembledatLibertySquareinTaipeionthenightofJune4,2011,tomarkthetwentysecondanniversaryoftheBeijingMassacre--incoordinationwithcandlelight vigilsheldinHongKongandMacau--tocommemoratethevictimsofthebloody crackdownontheprodemocracymovementandtospotlighttheChineseauthorities'relentlessabusesofhumanrights.AnundemocraticChinaposesathreatto worldpeace. SonnyShiu-hingLo'sCompeting Chinese Political Visions: Hong Kong versus Beijing on Democracy addressesanimportanttopicthatshouldbeofgreatinterest toreadersconcernedwithpeaceandjusticearoundtheworld.Thebookconsists ofchaptersofmixedqualities,somewithgreatmeritsandstrengths,andothers lessso;someobservationsoncurrentHongKongpoliticsareparticularlyinformative,evenfascinating.Thisreviewarticletriestoanalyzebothitsstrengthsand weaknesses;itwillalsoreflectonitsimplicationsforTaiwan. LocontendsthatformostHongKongpeopledemocracyentailsthedirect electionsbyuniversalsuffrageofthechiefexecutiveandoftheentireLegislative © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press Features 133 Council(nowonlythirtyofthesixtylegislatorsarepopularlyelectedinthefive geographicalconstituencies,andtheotherthirtyareselectedbyfunctionalconstituencies);thisWesternmodelofchecksandbalancesonthechiefexecutiveand legislaturethroughdirectelectionscontradictsthevisionoftheleadersofthe People'sRepublicofChina(PRC),who"regardthegradualimprovementofthe legalsystemandthespreadofvillageelectionsassignsofaChinese-styleof democratization."ThePRCleadersinsistonanauthoritarian,executive-ledpolity forHongKonginthenameofstability,prosperity,andpatriotism;theybelieve that"democracyinthesocialistPRChastobeprocedurallyincremental,publicly accountable,andculturallyspecialwithChinesecharacteristics."Loarguesthat "Thesetwodivergentvisionsofdemocracy--oneWesternandanotherChinese-- havebeenshapingthepoliticaldevelopmentoftheHKSAR[HongKongSpecial AdministrativeRegion]sinceJuly1,1997"(p.1). Laterinthisreview,Ishalladdressthecriticalissueoftheauthor'sargument regardingWesternandChinesevisionsofdemocracy.Hemakesitclearthatthe authoritiesinthePRCandtheHKSARhavesoughtbyallmeanstodelayand blocktheHongKongpeople'sdemandforpopularelectionsofthechiefexecutive andofthewholeLegislativeCouncil. Legacy of the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident LotracestheoriginsofthetwocompetingpoliticalvisionstotheBeijingTiananmenSquareIncidentof1989,whichisthesubjectofchapter1.If,Loobserves, HongKongunderBritishruleprovidedarevolutionarybaseforSunYat-senand hissupporterstoconspireagainsttheQingdynasty,since1989ithasbecomea "democratizingbase"(p.23)forHongKongChinesetoattempttomakealiberalizingimpactonthePRC.Infact,"HongKonginMayandJune1989,becamea `revolutionary'basefosteringandsupportingthemainlanddemocratsinopposing thePRCgovernment"(p.29).OnMay28,1.5millionHongKongcitizenstookto thestreetstosupportstudentprotestersinTiananmenSquareinBeijing,calling onPremierLiPengtostepdown.Peoplecontributedtopublicdonationsfor China'sprodemocracymovement."ManyHongKongpeoplestrengthenedtheir ChineseidentityduringthePRCTiananmenincident"(p.28). Immediatelyfollowingthemilitarycrackdownonstudentprotestersin BeijingonJune4,1989,HongKongbeganplayingacrucialroleintherescueof manyfleeingmainlanddissidents.Theauthorrecountstheheroicadventuresof ChanTat-chingandhisassociatesinOperationYellowbird.Enlistingtriadmembersforhelp,theyusedafleetofshipsandspeedboatstosmuggleanumberof Chinesedissidentsoutofthecountrytosafety.TheHongKongAllianceinSupportofthePatrioticandDemocraticMovementinChina(Zhi-lian-hui), formedbySzetoWah,MartinLee,AlbertHo,andmanyotheractivists,managed muchoftherescueoperation.TheAllianceadoptedafive-pointplatform:"releasingdemocraticelements,reversingtheverdictonthe1989democracymovement, 134 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 pursuingtheresponsibilityofthemassacre,terminatingone-partyruleandestablishingademocraticChina"(p.29).EversinceitsformationinMay1989,the AlliancehasbecomeanactiveforcepromotingdemocracyinHongKong.The legacyoftheTiananmenSquareIncidentliveson. Theauthordemonstratesthat,sinceHongKong'sreturntoChinesesovereigntyin1997,thestandardtextbooksinitssecondaryschoolshavetriedtodilute theTiananmenIncidentandtodepoliticizeit.Yet"manyyoungpeopleinHong KongareexposedtotheTiananmentragedythroughthemassmedia,especially thepressandYouTube"(p.31).Moreover,theannualJune4,1989,paradeand candlelightvigilinHongKong,organizedbythedemocratsandattendedbytens (evenhundreds)ofthousandsofpeople,arepoliticallysignificant.Theyhavekept alivethetragicmemoriesofthepastandinspiredpopulardemandfordemocratizationintheHKSARandthePRC--tosafeguardindividualfreedomsandhuman rights.AsLopointsout,HongKonghasbecome"abeaconofdemocraticaspirationsformanyChineseonthemainland"(p.36).ThisworriesthePRCauthorities andannoystheirclient,theHKSARgovernment. Theauthorconcludesthefirstchapterwiththisimportantnote: AlthoughHongKong'spoliticalsystemitselfhasshownsignsofmainlandization,anotherdialecticaltendencyisthattheHongKongstyleoffreedom, politicalculture,andprotesttraditionhasbeenseepingintothemainlandgradually.Inparticular,Guangdongprovincehasenvisagedmanylocalpeopleand HongKongresidentsresortingtoproteststomaketheirgrievancesheard.If HongKongisalreadypartofthePRC,theHongkong-izationofthemainland is perhapstakingplacesilentlybutataconsistentandgradualpace.Themainlanders'politicalculture,especiallythosewhovisitandworkintheHKSAR,has beenchangingslowlytobecomemorelikeHongKongpeoplewhocherishtheir civillibertiesandruleoflaw.TheseedsofmainlandChina'sdemocracyhave alreadybeensowedintheHKSAR.(p.43) Loshouldbecommendedformakingnoteoftensionsbetweentwotendencies-- themainlandization(dalu-hua)ofHongKong,andtheHongkongization (Xianggang-hua)ofthemainland.Sofar,theformerseemsmuchmoreprevalent; itremainstobeseenifthelatterwillmakeanymoreheadway. Lo'sworkisnotflawless,however.Threepointscometomind.First,herefers to"themilitarycrackdownonthemainlandstudents...ontheTiananmen Square"(pp.29,105,165);butthekillingsactuallytookplacenotonthesquare,but inthestreetsoutside.Second,hereferstoSunYat-senas"themotherofthe1911 revolution"(p.36).Thisbookneedscarefulediting;awkwardexpressionsand sentencescanbefoundinotherchaptersaswell(pp.38,51,76,96,98,112,140,149, 152,153,217,238).Third,theauthortendstooveremphasizeculturalconflictasa determiningfactorinpolitics.Forinstance,hestates: Beijingvoicedits"strongdissatisfaction"with[Hillary]Clinton'scomments[on theTiananmenincident],callingthem"groundlessaccusationsagainstthe Chinesegovernment."...SincetheCCP[ChineseCommunistParty]attaches Features 135 greatimportancetoface,thisdeep-rootedChinesecultureisinconflictwith AmericanwishtoseethereversaloftheofficialTiananmenverdict...."Face" referstotheChinesetermmianzi [],whichmeanshonorinEnglish.(pp.43, 96) However,hisviewofculturalconflictcannotexplainawaythecynicisminpower politics.Toholdontopowerbyallmeans,disregardingmoralconsequencesand allotherconsiderations,isdishonor--inbothEnglishandChinesecultures. Nevertheless,Loisquiterightinsayingthat"thelegacyoftheJune4tragedy in1989washauntingtherelationsbetweenBeijingandtheHongKongdemocrats" (p.77).Thislegacyofmutualdistrustwasfullyexposedinthesummerof2003. Mass Protest on July 1, 2003 OnJuly1,2003,acrowdof500,000demonstratorstooktothestreetsinHong KongagainsttheHKSARgovernment.Theprotestmovementstemmedfrom widespreadpublicdiscontentwiththeadministrationofthechiefexecutive,Tung Chee-hwa.Inadditiontothetroubledstateoftheeconomy,thegovernment's mishandlingoftheSARSepidemicinthespringof2003resultedinthedeathof nearlythreehundredcitizens,causingageneralpanic.Asifthiswerenotenough toangerthepublic,thegovernmentattemptedtoenactantisubversionlawsas stipulatedinArticle23oftheHongKongBasicLaw.Theconvergenceofthese factorstouchedoffamassiveprotest. LohasbeenadiligentscholarandkeenobserverofHongKongpoliticsfora numberofyears,withseveralfinebookstohiscredit.Yetinthisbook,hetakesfor grantedhisreaders'knowledgeofHongKongpolitics--neglectingtoanalyzethe actualcontentofArticle23andtoexplainthemagnitudeoftheproblem.Letus examineitscontentandimplications.Article23states: TheHongKongSpecialAdministrativeRegionshallenactlawsonitsownto prohibitanyactoftreason,secession,sedition,subversionagainsttheCentral People'sGovernment,ortheftofstatesecrets,toprohibitforeignpoliticalorganizationsorbodiesfromconductingpoliticalactivitiesintheRegion,andto prohibitpoliticalorganizationsorbodiesoftheRegionfromestablishingtieswith foreignpoliticalorganizationsorbodies.2 AlthoughtheBasicLawsetsnotimetableforenactmentofsuchlaws,the TungChee-hwaadministrationrushedtoaction.Assecretaryforsecurity,Regina Ip(LauSuk-yee)playedacrucialroleinthismatter.Shewas,inmyimpression,an http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png China Review International University of Hawai'I Press

Struggle for Democracy: Hong Kong Is Increasingly Mainlandized ( Dalu-hua 大陆化): Taiwan on the Road Toward Hongkong-ization ( Xianggang-hua /香港化)

China Review International , Volume 18 (2) – Sep 19, 2011

Loading next page...
 
/lp/university-of-hawai-i-press/struggle-for-democracy-hong-kong-is-increasingly-mainlandized-dalu-hua-u34qzI1wrw
Publisher
University of Hawai'I Press
Copyright
Copyright © University of Hawai'i Press.
ISSN
1527-9367
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

132 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 patternsofprotestinmid-QingChinawillbecomeacorrectivetothosewhoover emphasizetheconvergingandhomogenizingforcesinmodernhistory. DavidD.Buck David D. Buck is a professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin­Milwaukee. He is a former editor of the JournalofAsianStudies. StruggleforDemocracy:HongKongIsIncreasinglyMainlandized(Dalu-hua ):TaiwanontheRoadToward Hongkong-ization(Xianggang-hua/) SonnyShiu-hingLo.Competing Chinese Political Visions: Hong Kong versus Beijing on Democracy.SantaBarbara,CA:Praeger.2010.xii,294pp. Hardcover$59.95,isbn978-0-31336-505-8. "ItworriesmetothinkabouttheJune4th[BeijingMassacreofJune4,1989]," writesaNationalTaiwanUniversitystudenttoThe Liberty Times.1WithChina's stunningrisetoeconomicandmilitarypowerandthecurrentcloserelations betweenTaiwanandhergiantneighbor,manyTaiwanesearefearfulandanxious aboutwhatmighthappentothefreedomandsecurityoftheirislandnation.While TaiwanesewerepreviouslyreluctanttoexpresssupportfortheChinesepeople's prodemocracymovement,thisyearhundredsofTaiwan'scollegestudentsassembledatLibertySquareinTaipeionthenightofJune4,2011,tomarkthetwentysecondanniversaryoftheBeijingMassacre--incoordinationwithcandlelight vigilsheldinHongKongandMacau--tocommemoratethevictimsofthebloody crackdownontheprodemocracymovementandtospotlighttheChineseauthorities'relentlessabusesofhumanrights.AnundemocraticChinaposesathreatto worldpeace. SonnyShiu-hingLo'sCompeting Chinese Political Visions: Hong Kong versus Beijing on Democracy addressesanimportanttopicthatshouldbeofgreatinterest toreadersconcernedwithpeaceandjusticearoundtheworld.Thebookconsists ofchaptersofmixedqualities,somewithgreatmeritsandstrengths,andothers lessso;someobservationsoncurrentHongKongpoliticsareparticularlyinformative,evenfascinating.Thisreviewarticletriestoanalyzebothitsstrengthsand weaknesses;itwillalsoreflectonitsimplicationsforTaiwan. LocontendsthatformostHongKongpeopledemocracyentailsthedirect electionsbyuniversalsuffrageofthechiefexecutiveandoftheentireLegislative © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press Features 133 Council(nowonlythirtyofthesixtylegislatorsarepopularlyelectedinthefive geographicalconstituencies,andtheotherthirtyareselectedbyfunctionalconstituencies);thisWesternmodelofchecksandbalancesonthechiefexecutiveand legislaturethroughdirectelectionscontradictsthevisionoftheleadersofthe People'sRepublicofChina(PRC),who"regardthegradualimprovementofthe legalsystemandthespreadofvillageelectionsassignsofaChinese-styleof democratization."ThePRCleadersinsistonanauthoritarian,executive-ledpolity forHongKonginthenameofstability,prosperity,andpatriotism;theybelieve that"democracyinthesocialistPRChastobeprocedurallyincremental,publicly accountable,andculturallyspecialwithChinesecharacteristics."Loarguesthat "Thesetwodivergentvisionsofdemocracy--oneWesternandanotherChinese-- havebeenshapingthepoliticaldevelopmentoftheHKSAR[HongKongSpecial AdministrativeRegion]sinceJuly1,1997"(p.1). Laterinthisreview,Ishalladdressthecriticalissueoftheauthor'sargument regardingWesternandChinesevisionsofdemocracy.Hemakesitclearthatthe authoritiesinthePRCandtheHKSARhavesoughtbyallmeanstodelayand blocktheHongKongpeople'sdemandforpopularelectionsofthechiefexecutive andofthewholeLegislativeCouncil. Legacy of the 1989 Tiananmen Square Incident LotracestheoriginsofthetwocompetingpoliticalvisionstotheBeijingTiananmenSquareIncidentof1989,whichisthesubjectofchapter1.If,Loobserves, HongKongunderBritishruleprovidedarevolutionarybaseforSunYat-senand hissupporterstoconspireagainsttheQingdynasty,since1989ithasbecomea "democratizingbase"(p.23)forHongKongChinesetoattempttomakealiberalizingimpactonthePRC.Infact,"HongKonginMayandJune1989,becamea `revolutionary'basefosteringandsupportingthemainlanddemocratsinopposing thePRCgovernment"(p.29).OnMay28,1.5millionHongKongcitizenstookto thestreetstosupportstudentprotestersinTiananmenSquareinBeijing,calling onPremierLiPengtostepdown.Peoplecontributedtopublicdonationsfor China'sprodemocracymovement."ManyHongKongpeoplestrengthenedtheir ChineseidentityduringthePRCTiananmenincident"(p.28). Immediatelyfollowingthemilitarycrackdownonstudentprotestersin BeijingonJune4,1989,HongKongbeganplayingacrucialroleintherescueof manyfleeingmainlanddissidents.Theauthorrecountstheheroicadventuresof ChanTat-chingandhisassociatesinOperationYellowbird.Enlistingtriadmembersforhelp,theyusedafleetofshipsandspeedboatstosmuggleanumberof Chinesedissidentsoutofthecountrytosafety.TheHongKongAllianceinSupportofthePatrioticandDemocraticMovementinChina(Zhi-lian-hui), formedbySzetoWah,MartinLee,AlbertHo,andmanyotheractivists,managed muchoftherescueoperation.TheAllianceadoptedafive-pointplatform:"releasingdemocraticelements,reversingtheverdictonthe1989democracymovement, 134 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 pursuingtheresponsibilityofthemassacre,terminatingone-partyruleandestablishingademocraticChina"(p.29).EversinceitsformationinMay1989,the AlliancehasbecomeanactiveforcepromotingdemocracyinHongKong.The legacyoftheTiananmenSquareIncidentliveson. Theauthordemonstratesthat,sinceHongKong'sreturntoChinesesovereigntyin1997,thestandardtextbooksinitssecondaryschoolshavetriedtodilute theTiananmenIncidentandtodepoliticizeit.Yet"manyyoungpeopleinHong KongareexposedtotheTiananmentragedythroughthemassmedia,especially thepressandYouTube"(p.31).Moreover,theannualJune4,1989,paradeand candlelightvigilinHongKong,organizedbythedemocratsandattendedbytens (evenhundreds)ofthousandsofpeople,arepoliticallysignificant.Theyhavekept alivethetragicmemoriesofthepastandinspiredpopulardemandfordemocratizationintheHKSARandthePRC--tosafeguardindividualfreedomsandhuman rights.AsLopointsout,HongKonghasbecome"abeaconofdemocraticaspirationsformanyChineseonthemainland"(p.36).ThisworriesthePRCauthorities andannoystheirclient,theHKSARgovernment. Theauthorconcludesthefirstchapterwiththisimportantnote: AlthoughHongKong'spoliticalsystemitselfhasshownsignsofmainlandization,anotherdialecticaltendencyisthattheHongKongstyleoffreedom, politicalculture,andprotesttraditionhasbeenseepingintothemainlandgradually.Inparticular,Guangdongprovincehasenvisagedmanylocalpeopleand HongKongresidentsresortingtoproteststomaketheirgrievancesheard.If HongKongisalreadypartofthePRC,theHongkong-izationofthemainland is perhapstakingplacesilentlybutataconsistentandgradualpace.Themainlanders'politicalculture,especiallythosewhovisitandworkintheHKSAR,has beenchangingslowlytobecomemorelikeHongKongpeoplewhocherishtheir civillibertiesandruleoflaw.TheseedsofmainlandChina'sdemocracyhave alreadybeensowedintheHKSAR.(p.43) Loshouldbecommendedformakingnoteoftensionsbetweentwotendencies-- themainlandization(dalu-hua)ofHongKong,andtheHongkongization (Xianggang-hua)ofthemainland.Sofar,theformerseemsmuchmoreprevalent; itremainstobeseenifthelatterwillmakeanymoreheadway. Lo'sworkisnotflawless,however.Threepointscometomind.First,herefers to"themilitarycrackdownonthemainlandstudents...ontheTiananmen Square"(pp.29,105,165);butthekillingsactuallytookplacenotonthesquare,but inthestreetsoutside.Second,hereferstoSunYat-senas"themotherofthe1911 revolution"(p.36).Thisbookneedscarefulediting;awkwardexpressionsand sentencescanbefoundinotherchaptersaswell(pp.38,51,76,96,98,112,140,149, 152,153,217,238).Third,theauthortendstooveremphasizeculturalconflictasa determiningfactorinpolitics.Forinstance,hestates: Beijingvoicedits"strongdissatisfaction"with[Hillary]Clinton'scomments[on theTiananmenincident],callingthem"groundlessaccusationsagainstthe Chinesegovernment."...SincetheCCP[ChineseCommunistParty]attaches Features 135 greatimportancetoface,thisdeep-rootedChinesecultureisinconflictwith AmericanwishtoseethereversaloftheofficialTiananmenverdict...."Face" referstotheChinesetermmianzi [],whichmeanshonorinEnglish.(pp.43, 96) However,hisviewofculturalconflictcannotexplainawaythecynicisminpower politics.Toholdontopowerbyallmeans,disregardingmoralconsequencesand allotherconsiderations,isdishonor--inbothEnglishandChinesecultures. Nevertheless,Loisquiterightinsayingthat"thelegacyoftheJune4tragedy in1989washauntingtherelationsbetweenBeijingandtheHongKongdemocrats" (p.77).Thislegacyofmutualdistrustwasfullyexposedinthesummerof2003. Mass Protest on July 1, 2003 OnJuly1,2003,acrowdof500,000demonstratorstooktothestreetsinHong KongagainsttheHKSARgovernment.Theprotestmovementstemmedfrom widespreadpublicdiscontentwiththeadministrationofthechiefexecutive,Tung Chee-hwa.Inadditiontothetroubledstateoftheeconomy,thegovernment's mishandlingoftheSARSepidemicinthespringof2003resultedinthedeathof nearlythreehundredcitizens,causingageneralpanic.Asifthiswerenotenough toangerthepublic,thegovernmentattemptedtoenactantisubversionlawsas stipulatedinArticle23oftheHongKongBasicLaw.Theconvergenceofthese factorstouchedoffamassiveprotest. LohasbeenadiligentscholarandkeenobserverofHongKongpoliticsfora numberofyears,withseveralfinebookstohiscredit.Yetinthisbook,hetakesfor grantedhisreaders'knowledgeofHongKongpolitics--neglectingtoanalyzethe actualcontentofArticle23andtoexplainthemagnitudeoftheproblem.Letus examineitscontentandimplications.Article23states: TheHongKongSpecialAdministrativeRegionshallenactlawsonitsownto prohibitanyactoftreason,secession,sedition,subversionagainsttheCentral People'sGovernment,ortheftofstatesecrets,toprohibitforeignpoliticalorganizationsorbodiesfromconductingpoliticalactivitiesintheRegion,andto prohibitpoliticalorganizationsorbodiesoftheRegionfromestablishingtieswith foreignpoliticalorganizationsorbodies.2 AlthoughtheBasicLawsetsnotimetableforenactmentofsuchlaws,the TungChee-hwaadministrationrushedtoaction.Assecretaryforsecurity,Regina Ip(LauSuk-yee)playedacrucialroleinthismatter.Shewas,inmyimpression,an

Journal

China Review InternationalUniversity of Hawai'I Press

Published: Sep 19, 2011

There are no references for this article.