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Some Shared Developments in Pronouns in Languages of Southern Oceania

Some Shared Developments in Pronouns in Languages of Southern Oceania John Lynch university of the south pacific Françoise Ozanne-Rivierre lacito-cnrs The languages of Vanuatu and New Caledonia manifest a number of innovations in the Proto-Oceanic pronominal system, the most interesting of these-- and the most useful for subgrouping purposes--being in the nonsingular focal pronouns. We show that (1) they continue two changes begun in Proto­Eastern Oceanic--*t > *d in the ²rst inclusive pronoun *kita, and the suf²xing of the numerals *rua `two' and *tolu `three' to form dual and trial pronouns, and (2) they also continue the change *k > *g in the ²rst exclusive and second person pronouns *kamami and *kam(i)u, which has been reconstructed for Proto­ North­Central Vanuatu. However, the languages of Southern Vanuatu and New Caledonia apparently uniquely share two other innovations: (3) *kida > *gada (alternating with *gadi?) as the ²rst person inclusive pronoun; and (4) restructuring of the system of number-marking, such that dual and trial are marked by greatly modi²ed forms of the numerals *rua and *tolu, and a plural suf²x deriving from an equally modi²ed form of *pat(i) `four' is added to the system. This paper documents these changes, suggests that they provide strong evidence for grouping Southern Vanuatu and New http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Oceanic Linguistics University of Hawai'I Press

Some Shared Developments in Pronouns in Languages of Southern Oceania

Oceanic Linguistics , Volume 40 (1) – Jan 6, 2001

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University of Hawai'I Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2001 University of Hawai'i Press.
ISSN
1527-9421
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Abstract

John Lynch university of the south pacific Françoise Ozanne-Rivierre lacito-cnrs The languages of Vanuatu and New Caledonia manifest a number of innovations in the Proto-Oceanic pronominal system, the most interesting of these-- and the most useful for subgrouping purposes--being in the nonsingular focal pronouns. We show that (1) they continue two changes begun in Proto­Eastern Oceanic--*t > *d in the ²rst inclusive pronoun *kita, and the suf²xing of the numerals *rua `two' and *tolu `three' to form dual and trial pronouns, and (2) they also continue the change *k > *g in the ²rst exclusive and second person pronouns *kamami and *kam(i)u, which has been reconstructed for Proto­ North­Central Vanuatu. However, the languages of Southern Vanuatu and New Caledonia apparently uniquely share two other innovations: (3) *kida > *gada (alternating with *gadi?) as the ²rst person inclusive pronoun; and (4) restructuring of the system of number-marking, such that dual and trial are marked by greatly modi²ed forms of the numerals *rua and *tolu, and a plural suf²x deriving from an equally modi²ed form of *pat(i) `four' is added to the system. This paper documents these changes, suggests that they provide strong evidence for grouping Southern Vanuatu and New

Journal

Oceanic LinguisticsUniversity of Hawai'I Press

Published: Jan 6, 2001

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