Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China (review)

Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China (review) 78 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.1,2011 AndrewB.Kipnis.Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,2011.205pp. Hardcover$80.00,isbn978-0-226-43753-8.Paperback$27.50,isbn 978-0-226-43755-2. Inthisbook,AndrewB.Kipnisexaminesthecausesofhigheducationaldesires in ZoupingCounty,China,throughanexplorationofthecultural,political, and economichistoriesandchangesthataffectthisdesireforeducationalsuccess. Theresearchquestion,"WhyistheeducationaldesirehighinZouping?"isinitiatedbyasurveyofhouseholdsthatKipnisconductedinZoupingduring2005 and 2006.Toanswerthisquestion,Kipnisdiscussesthesocialandculturalfactors atfourlevels:local,highergovernmentalagencies,EastAsiancountries inheritingsimilarculturallegacies,anduniversalcontexts.Healsoadoptsthree concepts--culture,governing,andemplacement--toframehisstudy.Beginning atthelocallevel,Kipnisprovidesadeepandthoughtfulaccountabouteducational desiresandgoesfurthertoexplorethisphenomenonintermsofglobal circumstances. Inthefirstchapter,Kipnisintroducesthesurveyofhouseholdsheconducted inZouping,China.Heaskswhetherparentswanttheirchildrentoattend college,andtheresultshowsthat100percentofparentssay"Yes."Impressedby theirhigheducationaldesires,Kipnisstartstoinvestigatethecausesandsocial consequencesofeducationaldesiresinZouping.Headoptsthreeconceptsto framehiswork:culture,governing,andemplacement.HereferstoFischer's definitionofculturetounderstandpeople'sdesireforeducationalachievementin China,Foucault'sunderstandingofgoverningas"conductofconduct"toanalyze thegoverningbehaviorsofvariousagencies,andfinallyHerzfeldandEnglund's discoursesofcirculationofculturesamongdifferentplacestodiscussthethirdkey concept,emplacement,whichconnectstheothertwoconcepts,cultureand governing. Inthesecondchapter,Kipnisexaminesthegoverningofeducationaldesirein Zouping.Hediscussesrecenteconomicgrowththatimproveseducationalsuccess inZouping,suchasimpressiveconstructionofhighwaysandtheZoupingtownshipandlargeinvestmentsinschoolfacilities.HeexaminesZouping'seducational historythatleadstothetraditionalpedagogyatschool;forexample,memorization isstillheavilyusedasapedagogictechniquetoday.Ingreatdetail,heillustrates howparentsandfamiliesglorifyeducationalsuccess,andhowintensivelyintheir dailyroutineschildrenstudyinordertoattainthatsuccess.Kipnisalsoprovides theportraitsofseveralfamiliesheinterviewedinZouping,inwhichheshowsthat, regardlessoffamilybackground,alltheparentsexpecttheirchildrentosucceedin school.Insum,allagents--includingthegovernment(countyeducationbureau andeducationaladministrators),enterprises,parents,teachers,andstudents-- worktogethertopushtheeducationaldesireinZouping. © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press Reviews 79 Inthethirdchapter,KipnisexaminesthenationalpoliciesandtheirimplementationinZoupingandthewaytheyinfluenceeducationaldesire.Hediscusses twonationalpoliciesthatenhanceormoderateeducationaldesire.First,hediscussesthebirthcontrolpolicy,whichcontributestoadeclineinbirthrates, changesinsiblingpatterns,andhighparentalexpectationsintermsof"Hoping one'ssontobecomeadragonandone'sdaughteraphoenix"(wangzi chenglong, wangnu chengfeng) (p.61).Second,Kipnisdiscussesthe"educationforquality" initiative(suzi jiaoyu)andvariouscampaignsunderthisnationalpolicy.He discusseseffortstodivertstudentsfromrotelearningandtopromotecreativity andalternativeformsofeducation,suchashomeworkreduction,privatization, promotingvocationaleducation,andothers.Hedemonstratesthat,regardlessof thealternatives,thedesireforhighereducationhasbeenfueledbyexpanded highereducationopportunitiesandfiercecompetitionforgoodjobs. Inthefourthchapter,Kipnisexamineseducationaldesireasaculturalphenomenon,withrootsinthegoverningpracticesofimperialChina.Hephrasesthe legaciesusingtheterm"theimperialgoverningcomplex"(p.103).Heexplores howtheselegaciesenactinZoupingthroughadiscussionoffourthemes:exemplarity,examinations,holistichierarchy,andnationbuilding.Exemplarpedagogy suffusesthecurriculuminZouping'sschoolsthroughrequirementsforstudentsin termsofobedience,politeness,andfollowingstandards,andforteachersinterms ofsettinggoodexamplesforstudents.Itisalsodemonstratedincalligraphic classes,literatureteaching,morningchants,questionsandresponses,andsoon. CulturesofexaminationdominateeducationinChinaandreflectanimpersonal, meritocraticimagination.Theliterarymasculinityoftalentedscholar/beautiful woman(Caizi Jiaren)embodiesthenotionthateducationisseenasameansfor enhancingone's(male's)statusandenablingsexualdesire.Inthefinalchapter, Kipnisexamineshowtheseelementsoftheimperialgoverningcomplexare implementedinotherEastAsiancountries.Heconcludesthattheimperialgoverningcomplexhasatleaststrengthenededucationaldesire.However,itcannotbe consideredasoleordirectcausetotheintensityofeducationaldesireasdemonstratedinZouping,becausethepopulationsoftheseEastAsiancountries,and eventheirdescendantsinWesterncountries,sharesimilarlyhighformsofeducationaldesireinabsenceoftherigidexaminationsystemorexemplarChinese pedagogies. Inthefifthchapter,Kipnisexaminesthenatureofhumandesireattheuniversallevel.Heusessociologicaltheoriestounderstandeducationaldesireasa socialfever,andhowtheaspectsofeducationaldesireinZoupingreflectuniversal dilemmasofhumandesireandsocialhierarchy.HenotesthatQur'anicschoolsin theIslamicworldsharethesameexemplar,modeling,memorization,anddisciplinedpedagogy,andahierarchicalsocialsystem.Heconcludesthatallthese similarpatternsareduetoanagriculturalsocietyandculture.Inaddition,Kipnis discussestheliterarymasculinityrelatedtogenderidealsandsexualdesireinboth 80 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.1,2011 agriculturalandindustrialsocieties;heexamineshowlanguageeducationplays an importantrolefornationbuildingthroughcreationofsocialidentity,and notes thatthecourseofdemographictransition,especiallythedeclineinfertility ratesinindustrialsocieties,increasesfamilies'educationaldesire.Insignificant detail,hefurtherexaminestherelationshipbetweeneducationsuccess,diploma, securejob,salary,andprestige;hedescribestheelaboratesystemofauditingand assessmentofschools,teachers,students,andadministratorsandcompetitive dynamicsinChina.Finally,Kipnispointsoutthatwhiletheeducationaldesirein Zoupingandinotherpartsoftheworldisexperienceddifferently,therearecommon,universalfeatures,hence"cultural"and"universalistic"arenotexclusivebut complementary. Inthefinalchapter,Kipnisdiscussesthewaythelegaciesoftheimperial governingcomplexandcompetitivedynamicsmakethefiveuniversalfactors-- rapidandlateindustrialization,demographictransition,literarymasculinity, nationbuilding,andexemplarity--worktogetherandcauseeducationaldesiresin contemporaryZouping,China.Hementionsthatthesecausesandeffectsof educationaldesirearedeeplyintertwinedduetothecomplicationofsocialdynamics.Heholdsthateducationaldesiresaretheresultofmanyaspectsofsocial change,suchasfertilityrates,urbanization,developmentofnationalismand nationalidentity,andformsofgoverninginChina. ThetopicofhigheducationaldesireinChinaisveryimportantbuthasnot beensystematicallyorcomprehensiveexamined.Kipnishasdoneanexcellentjob exploringthisphenomenon.Heprovidesgreatinsightsonhowthismanifestsin thefamily,schools,community,andthegovernmentinChina.Hetracesbackthe historyofChinesegovernmentandliterarycultureandconnectstheChinesecase totheglobalsituation. ReaderswillgreatlybenefitfromKipnis'srichknowledgeabouteducational tradition,reforms,andsocialchangesinChina.Kipnisdoesagoodjobofbalancinghispositionasaresearcher,teacher,andfriend.Heemployssocialscience theoriestoexamineculture,politics,economics,demography,andsoforthin ordertoilluminatethephenomenonofhigheducationdesireinZoupingand,toa largeextent,Chinainnovatively. Insum,thisbookisanimpressivework,abookthatprovidesagoodpicture ofChina'seducationalchangesandsocietythroughthelensofacountyinShandong.ItisagreatbookforcoursesonChina,comparativeandinternational education,comparativepolitics,and/orEastAsianstudies. XuanWengandJingLin Xuan Weng is postdoctoral fellow, and Jing Lin is a professor in the Department of Education Leadership, Higher Education and International Education at the University of Maryland. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png China Review International University of Hawai'I Press

Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China (review)

China Review International, Volume 18 (1) – Aug 9, 2011

Loading next page...
 
/lp/university-of-hawai-i-press/governing-educational-desire-culture-politics-and-schooling-in-china-IkatN0WSR1
Publisher
University of Hawai'I Press
Copyright
Copyright © University of Hawai'i Press.
ISSN
1527-9367
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

78 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.1,2011 AndrewB.Kipnis.Governing Educational Desire: Culture, Politics, and Schooling in China.Chicago:UniversityofChicagoPress,2011.205pp. Hardcover$80.00,isbn978-0-226-43753-8.Paperback$27.50,isbn 978-0-226-43755-2. Inthisbook,AndrewB.Kipnisexaminesthecausesofhigheducationaldesires in ZoupingCounty,China,throughanexplorationofthecultural,political, and economichistoriesandchangesthataffectthisdesireforeducationalsuccess. Theresearchquestion,"WhyistheeducationaldesirehighinZouping?"isinitiatedbyasurveyofhouseholdsthatKipnisconductedinZoupingduring2005 and 2006.Toanswerthisquestion,Kipnisdiscussesthesocialandculturalfactors atfourlevels:local,highergovernmentalagencies,EastAsiancountries inheritingsimilarculturallegacies,anduniversalcontexts.Healsoadoptsthree concepts--culture,governing,andemplacement--toframehisstudy.Beginning atthelocallevel,Kipnisprovidesadeepandthoughtfulaccountabouteducational desiresandgoesfurthertoexplorethisphenomenonintermsofglobal circumstances. Inthefirstchapter,Kipnisintroducesthesurveyofhouseholdsheconducted inZouping,China.Heaskswhetherparentswanttheirchildrentoattend college,andtheresultshowsthat100percentofparentssay"Yes."Impressedby theirhigheducationaldesires,Kipnisstartstoinvestigatethecausesandsocial consequencesofeducationaldesiresinZouping.Headoptsthreeconceptsto framehiswork:culture,governing,andemplacement.HereferstoFischer's definitionofculturetounderstandpeople'sdesireforeducationalachievementin China,Foucault'sunderstandingofgoverningas"conductofconduct"toanalyze thegoverningbehaviorsofvariousagencies,andfinallyHerzfeldandEnglund's discoursesofcirculationofculturesamongdifferentplacestodiscussthethirdkey concept,emplacement,whichconnectstheothertwoconcepts,cultureand governing. Inthesecondchapter,Kipnisexaminesthegoverningofeducationaldesirein Zouping.Hediscussesrecenteconomicgrowththatimproveseducationalsuccess inZouping,suchasimpressiveconstructionofhighwaysandtheZoupingtownshipandlargeinvestmentsinschoolfacilities.HeexaminesZouping'seducational historythatleadstothetraditionalpedagogyatschool;forexample,memorization isstillheavilyusedasapedagogictechniquetoday.Ingreatdetail,heillustrates howparentsandfamiliesglorifyeducationalsuccess,andhowintensivelyintheir dailyroutineschildrenstudyinordertoattainthatsuccess.Kipnisalsoprovides theportraitsofseveralfamiliesheinterviewedinZouping,inwhichheshowsthat, regardlessoffamilybackground,alltheparentsexpecttheirchildrentosucceedin school.Insum,allagents--includingthegovernment(countyeducationbureau andeducationaladministrators),enterprises,parents,teachers,andstudents-- worktogethertopushtheeducationaldesireinZouping. © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press Reviews 79 Inthethirdchapter,KipnisexaminesthenationalpoliciesandtheirimplementationinZoupingandthewaytheyinfluenceeducationaldesire.Hediscusses twonationalpoliciesthatenhanceormoderateeducationaldesire.First,hediscussesthebirthcontrolpolicy,whichcontributestoadeclineinbirthrates, changesinsiblingpatterns,andhighparentalexpectationsintermsof"Hoping one'ssontobecomeadragonandone'sdaughteraphoenix"(wangzi chenglong, wangnu chengfeng) (p.61).Second,Kipnisdiscussesthe"educationforquality" initiative(suzi jiaoyu)andvariouscampaignsunderthisnationalpolicy.He discusseseffortstodivertstudentsfromrotelearningandtopromotecreativity andalternativeformsofeducation,suchashomeworkreduction,privatization, promotingvocationaleducation,andothers.Hedemonstratesthat,regardlessof thealternatives,thedesireforhighereducationhasbeenfueledbyexpanded highereducationopportunitiesandfiercecompetitionforgoodjobs. Inthefourthchapter,Kipnisexamineseducationaldesireasaculturalphenomenon,withrootsinthegoverningpracticesofimperialChina.Hephrasesthe legaciesusingtheterm"theimperialgoverningcomplex"(p.103).Heexplores howtheselegaciesenactinZoupingthroughadiscussionoffourthemes:exemplarity,examinations,holistichierarchy,andnationbuilding.Exemplarpedagogy suffusesthecurriculuminZouping'sschoolsthroughrequirementsforstudentsin termsofobedience,politeness,andfollowingstandards,andforteachersinterms ofsettinggoodexamplesforstudents.Itisalsodemonstratedincalligraphic classes,literatureteaching,morningchants,questionsandresponses,andsoon. CulturesofexaminationdominateeducationinChinaandreflectanimpersonal, meritocraticimagination.Theliterarymasculinityoftalentedscholar/beautiful woman(Caizi Jiaren)embodiesthenotionthateducationisseenasameansfor enhancingone's(male's)statusandenablingsexualdesire.Inthefinalchapter, Kipnisexamineshowtheseelementsoftheimperialgoverningcomplexare implementedinotherEastAsiancountries.Heconcludesthattheimperialgoverningcomplexhasatleaststrengthenededucationaldesire.However,itcannotbe consideredasoleordirectcausetotheintensityofeducationaldesireasdemonstratedinZouping,becausethepopulationsoftheseEastAsiancountries,and eventheirdescendantsinWesterncountries,sharesimilarlyhighformsofeducationaldesireinabsenceoftherigidexaminationsystemorexemplarChinese pedagogies. Inthefifthchapter,Kipnisexaminesthenatureofhumandesireattheuniversallevel.Heusessociologicaltheoriestounderstandeducationaldesireasa socialfever,andhowtheaspectsofeducationaldesireinZoupingreflectuniversal dilemmasofhumandesireandsocialhierarchy.HenotesthatQur'anicschoolsin theIslamicworldsharethesameexemplar,modeling,memorization,anddisciplinedpedagogy,andahierarchicalsocialsystem.Heconcludesthatallthese similarpatternsareduetoanagriculturalsocietyandculture.Inaddition,Kipnis discussestheliterarymasculinityrelatedtogenderidealsandsexualdesireinboth 80 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.1,2011 agriculturalandindustrialsocieties;heexamineshowlanguageeducationplays an importantrolefornationbuildingthroughcreationofsocialidentity,and notes thatthecourseofdemographictransition,especiallythedeclineinfertility ratesinindustrialsocieties,increasesfamilies'educationaldesire.Insignificant detail,hefurtherexaminestherelationshipbetweeneducationsuccess,diploma, securejob,salary,andprestige;hedescribestheelaboratesystemofauditingand assessmentofschools,teachers,students,andadministratorsandcompetitive dynamicsinChina.Finally,Kipnispointsoutthatwhiletheeducationaldesirein Zoupingandinotherpartsoftheworldisexperienceddifferently,therearecommon,universalfeatures,hence"cultural"and"universalistic"arenotexclusivebut complementary. Inthefinalchapter,Kipnisdiscussesthewaythelegaciesoftheimperial governingcomplexandcompetitivedynamicsmakethefiveuniversalfactors-- rapidandlateindustrialization,demographictransition,literarymasculinity, nationbuilding,andexemplarity--worktogetherandcauseeducationaldesiresin contemporaryZouping,China.Hementionsthatthesecausesandeffectsof educationaldesirearedeeplyintertwinedduetothecomplicationofsocialdynamics.Heholdsthateducationaldesiresaretheresultofmanyaspectsofsocial change,suchasfertilityrates,urbanization,developmentofnationalismand nationalidentity,andformsofgoverninginChina. ThetopicofhigheducationaldesireinChinaisveryimportantbuthasnot beensystematicallyorcomprehensiveexamined.Kipnishasdoneanexcellentjob exploringthisphenomenon.Heprovidesgreatinsightsonhowthismanifestsin thefamily,schools,community,andthegovernmentinChina.Hetracesbackthe historyofChinesegovernmentandliterarycultureandconnectstheChinesecase totheglobalsituation. ReaderswillgreatlybenefitfromKipnis'srichknowledgeabouteducational tradition,reforms,andsocialchangesinChina.Kipnisdoesagoodjobofbalancinghispositionasaresearcher,teacher,andfriend.Heemployssocialscience theoriestoexamineculture,politics,economics,demography,andsoforthin ordertoilluminatethephenomenonofhigheducationdesireinZoupingand,toa largeextent,Chinainnovatively. Insum,thisbookisanimpressivework,abookthatprovidesagoodpicture ofChina'seducationalchangesandsocietythroughthelensofacountyinShandong.ItisagreatbookforcoursesonChina,comparativeandinternational education,comparativepolitics,and/orEastAsianstudies. XuanWengandJingLin Xuan Weng is postdoctoral fellow, and Jing Lin is a professor in the Department of Education Leadership, Higher Education and International Education at the University of Maryland.

Journal

China Review InternationalUniversity of Hawai'I Press

Published: Aug 9, 2011

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off