Reviews Women and Buddhist and Daoist clergy were excluded, so the pool of candidates was exclusive. When we add to this competition the educational requirement to master non-vernacular classical texts, we can grasp the educational barrier between those licensed to take examinations and those who could not because they were classically illiterate. Overall, licentiates were not peasants, artisans, clergy, or women. What ManCheong and others who follow Ping-ti Ho mean by "social mobility" might be better described as a healthy circulation of lower and upper elites. When we add the even healthier circulation of partially literate non-elites, who were the unintended by-products of the civil examination's educational process, then we will better understand the "meanings of examinations" for the many and not just the few in imperial China, such as the "class of 76." Benjamin Elman Benjamin Elman is a professor of East Asian studies and history at Princeton University. He specializes in Ming-Qing cultural history, 400900, and the history of science and education in China, 000900. Melanie Manion. Corruption by Design: Building Clean Government in Mainland China and Hong Kong. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004. 49.95, isbn 067404863. After replacing a planned economy with a market
China Review International – University of Hawai'I Press
Published: Dec 6, 2005
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