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Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts (review)

Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts (review) 324 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.3,2010 subtlereinterpretationofthetermda,weawaitCheung'ssecondvolume.This word(likesomanyotherstobefoundinthevocabularyofChinesetranslation criticism)hasmeaningfarbeyonditsimmediateapplicationtotheuseoflanguage.ItisakeywordintheconceptionoftheConfuciantruegentleman,orthe Taoistmanofvirtue.Tocompletethecircle,thebesttranslator--theonewhocan reallypenetratetotheheartofatextandreturnwithitstruereincarnationin anotherlanguage--is,ultimately,agentlemanorgentlewoman,andaman/ woman ofvirtue.Sincerity,insight,andanopenheartandmindarethe requirements. AlthoughthetextsselectedbyCheungandherteamcanbefoundinmultiple Chinese-languageanthologies,Imyselfregretthatthisotherwisebeautifully producedandexcellentlyedited,designed,andindexedvolumedoesnotgiveus theChineseoriginals.Thiscasewouldhavebeenperfectfortheparallel-text format.Ifthatinclusionwasconsideredtoooff-puttingforthegeneralreader,the textscouldhavebeenprintedasanappendix.Perhapsinanotheredition? JohnMinford John Minford is a translator of Chinese literature. He is currently a professor of Chinese at the Australian National University. JeffreyW.Cody,NancyS.Steinhardt,andTonyAtkin,editors.Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts.Honolulu:UniversityofHawai`iPress; HongKong:HongKongUniversityPress,2011.xxi,385pp.Hardcover $52.00,isbn978-0-8248-3456-2. ThemarriagebetweentraditionalChinesearchitectureandtheBeaux-Arts design traditionisoneofthemostsignificanteventsinthearchitecturalfieldin twentieth-centuryChina.Thematchmakers,somefiftyChinesestudentsstudying architectureabroadduringtheearlyRepublicanperiod(1912­1949),mostofthem intheUnitedStateswithahandfulinEuropeandJapan,areknownasthefirst generationofChinesearchitects.BornduringthelasttwodecadesoftheQing dynasty(1644­1911)andprofessionallytrainedoverseasintheirearlyadulthoods, thisgenerationhadreceivedbothclassicalChineseandWesterneducationsand, thus,wasaperfectcandidateforthehistoricalroleitplayed.Theimpactthese architectsmadeontheconstructedenvironmentofmodernChinaisprofound andfar-reaching--fromthechangesinarchitecturalstylesanddesignprocessesto © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press Reviews 325 thedevelopmentofarchitecturaleducationandanewidentityforthearchitect. Theimpactcanstillbefeltinthedawnofthetwenty-firstcentury. Thisbook,Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts,editedbyJeffreyCody, NancySteinhardt,andTonyAtkin,isthefirstandmostcomprehensivebook dedicatedsolelytothisfusionoftraditionsinmodernChinesearchitecture.The sixteencontributors,includingthethreeeditors,includemanyleadingscholarsin thefieldandrepresentadiversityofacademicandprofessionalbackgroundsthat helptodeepenourunderstandingofmodernChinesearchitecture,inparticular, andtwentieth-centuryChina,ingeneral.Theyarefromavarietyofinstitutionsin theUnitedStates,Europe,mainlandChina,HongKong,Taiwan,andAustralia, manywitheducationaloracademicexperiencesintwoorthreeoftheseregions. Thecollectiveeffortofthesescholarsresultsinthisrich,complex,andpanoramic volume. Thefifteenchaptersaregroupedintothreeparts.Inpart1("Divergenceto Convergence"),twoarticles,"ChineseArchitectureontheEveoftheBeaux-Arts," byNancySteinhardt,and"JustWhatWasBeaux-ArtsArchitecturalComposition?"byDavidVanZanten,introducethetwodistinctivetraditionsbeforethey met,layingthefoundationsforfurtherdiscussionsonthecomplexinteractions betweenthem.Steinhardt'sarticlesummarizestheformalcharactersandfundamentalprinciplesoftraditionalChinesearchitectureandspatialdesign,highlightingthosefeaturescompatiblewiththeBeaux-Artsdesignprinciples.Though mainlyaddressingthequestionofwhyChina'sfirstgenerationofarchitectswas especiallyattractedtoBeaux-Arts,thearticleoffersnotonlyasuccincthistorical backgroundoftheencounter,butalsobasicknowledgeabouttraditionalChinese architecture,itsmosteminentexamples,texts(e.g.,Yingzao fashi),technicaldetails (e.g.,modularity),andproductionmode(e.g.,jiangren).Fromtheothersideofthe Chinese­Beaux-Artsmarriage,DavidVanZantenexaminesthekeyaspectsofthe Beaux-Artsapproachinarchitecturaldesign,whichisnotonlyanassemblageof formalfeatures(e.g.,symmetry,axis,eclecticism,andmonumentality),butalsoa designphilosophyandworkingprocess.Hisarticlealsoexplainsthewaythe AmericanBeaux-Arts,representedbyPaulPhilippeCret'ssystemattheUniversity ofPennsylvania,fromwhichmanyfirst-generationChinesearchitectslearned architecture,transformedtheelitistpracticeoftheFrenchEcoledesBeaux-Arts intoaprofessionaltrainingsystemhighlightingcompositionaleloquence. Withthefoundationslaidoutbytheprevioustwoarticles,part2("ConvergencetoInfluence")delvesintothedetailsabouthowBeaux-Artsinfluences Chinesearchitectureindifferenttimesandlocations.Thefirsttwoarticlesare both relatedtoarchitecturaleducation.TonyAtkin'sarticle,"ChineseArchitecture StudentsattheUniversityofPennsylvaniainthe1920s:Tradition,Exchange,and theSearchforModernity,"focusesonthemostinfluentialplaceandpersonduring thefirststageofthetransmissionofBeaux-ArtstoChina,PhiladelphiaandPaul Cret,respectively,andtheirimpactonsomeofthemostfamousfirst-generation 326 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.3,2010 Chinesearchitects(e.g.,LiangSicheng,YangTingbao,TongJun,andChenZhi). Thenextstep,howthesePenn-trainedChinesestudentsbroughtwhatthey learnedabroadhomeandstartedChina'sownmodernarchitecturaleducation,is consideredbyGuDaqinginhischapter"AnOutlineofBeaux-ArtsEducationin China:Transplantation,Localization,andEntrenchment."UsingtheSchoolof ArchitectureatSoutheastUniversityasanexample,GudividesmodernChinese architecturaleducationintothreemajorphases:from1927totheearly1950s,when theearliestarchitecturalschoolswerefoundedfollowingforeignmodels;fromthe early1950stotheearly1980s,whentheBeaux-Artsmethodwasintegratedwith ChinesecontentandbecamethemainstreaminChina'sarchitecturaleducation; andfromtheearly1980stothepresent,whentheBeaux-Artssystemwasboth enrichedandchallengedbyothermodels. Thelasttwoarticlesinpart2arebothrelatedtothewayBeaux-Artsadapted tochangingpoliticalsituations.FocusingonChinesearchitectureofthe1950s,K. SizhengFan'sarticle,"AClassicistArchitectureForUtopia:TheSovietContacts," examinestheimpactofStalinistclassicism(calledsocialistrealismintheSoviet UnionandChina)onChinesearchitectureandcityplanning.SharingwithBeauxArtsthecommonheritageofclassicismandeclecticism,Sovietsocialistrealism canbeeasilyacceptedbytheChinesearchitectsandeducators,whoweremostly trainedintheBeaux-Artstradition.TheBeaux-Artsmethod,thus,wasreframed toservethesocialistideology.FuChao-Ching'sarticle,"Beaux-ArtsPracticeand EducationbyChineseArchitectsinTaiwan,"providesasuccinctoutlineofthe Beaux-ArtsinfluenceonTaiwanesearchitectureduringdifferenthistoricalstages, fromtheperiodofJapanesecolonization(1895­1945)tothepost-1949period, whenTaiwanbecametheseatofthecentralnationalistgovernmentandthe mainlandimmigrantarchitectsbroughtmoreBeaux-Artslegacytotheisland. Part3("InfluencetoParadigm")providesmoredetailedcasestudieson individualarchitects,buildings,andspecialissuesofracism,ritual,andcityplanning.Theninearticlesinthispartarefurthergroupedintothreesections.Thefirst sectionconcentratesonthreeprominentfirstgenerationarchitect-architectural historians.In"YangTingbao,China'sModernArchitectintheTwentiethCentury," XingRuanarguesthatbeingmodernisamoralratherthanaformalissue.Modernityconcernsthecommonwell-beingofallpeoplesinsteadofovertemphasison culturalspecificityofasinglenation.Inthissense,YangTingbaoisamodern architect.SengKuan's"BetweenBeaux-ArtsandModernism:DongDayouandthe Architectureof1930sShanghai"concentratesonthelifeandcareerofDong Dayou,especiallyhis"GreaterShanghaiPlan"andthein-depthindividualarchitecturaldesignofitsciviccenter.Usingprivatehousesasexamples,thischapter alsodemonstratesthatthoughtrainedmainlyintheBeaux-Artstradition,Dong wascapableofavarietyofdesignmethod,includingmodernism.Inthethird article,"ElevationorFaçade:ARe-evaluationofLiangSicheng'sInterpretationof ChineseTimberArchitectureintheLightofBeaux-ArtsClassicism,"ZhaoChen Reviews 327 offersararecriticismofLiangSicheng,arguingthatLiang'scompositionalanalysis oftheelevationsofancientbuildingsisamisinterpretationoftraditionalChinese architecture,aresultofhisdeep-rootedWesternBeaux-Artsfocusonfaçade. Althoughalsofocusingoneitherindividualarchitectsorbuildings,thefour articlesinthesecondsectionofpart3aremorediversified,boththematically and methodologically.UsingLüYanzhi'scareerastheprimaryexample,Jeffrey Cody'sarticle"FromStudiotoPractice:ChineseandNon-ChineseArchitects WorkingTogether"exploresthedifficulties--mainlyracialprejudice--thenewly graduatedChinesearchitecturestudentsencounteredwhentheystartedpracticing intherealworld.Codyclassifiesthreedifferentworkingenvironments,which hecalls"niches,"inwhichearlyChinesearchitectschosetoworkinorderto surviveandcompetewithforeignfirms.FocusingontheSunYat-senMemorial in NanjingbyLüYanzhi,RudolfWagner's"Ritual,Architecture,Politics,and PublicityduringtheRepublic:EnshriningSunYat-sen"givesabrilliantanalysis of thepoliticalstrugglesovertheritualstocommemoratethefoundingfatherof theChineseRepublicanddemonstratesthatarchitectureispartofthepropaganda tolegitimizeparticularpoliticalclaims.DealingwithLüYanzhi'smemorial structureforSun,DelinLai's"TheSunYat-senMemorialAuditorium:APreaching SpaceforModernChina"ismethodologicallyquitedifferentfromWagner's article.Supportedbyaformalratherthantextualanalysisofarchitecture,Lai's articleestablishesatypologicalconnectionbetweentheChristianchurchandthe modernChineseauditorium,whichhenamesthe"preachingspace,"andargues thatthecreationoftheauditoriumservesmodernChina'snation-buildingproject. Lastinthissection,YungHoChang's"Zhangvs.Zhang--SymmetryandSplit:A DevelopmentinChineseArchitectureinthe1950sand1960s"analyzesthekey worksbytwofamousarchitects,ZhangBoandZhangKaiji,workingmainly duringthePeople'sRepublicperiod(1949­),andsuggeststhatthestylistic d ifferencesbetweenthetwoZhangsmayresultfromtheirdifferentfamily b ackgrounds. Thethirdsectioninpart3isonmodernChinesecityplanning,withPeter Carroll's"TheBeaux-ArtsinAnotherRegister:GovernmentalAdministrativeand CivicCentersinCityPlansoftheRepublicanEra"andZhangJie's"Chinese UrbanismbeyondtheBeaux-Arts"dealingwiththeperiodsbeforeandafter1949, respectively.Carroll'sarticlesamplesthelegacyoftheBeaux-Artsdesignincities ofnational(Shanghai,Nanjing),regional(Guangzhou),andlocal(Suzhou)levels duringtheRepublicanperiod.ZhangJie'sarticle,ontheotherhand,exploresa varietyofforces--social,political,cultural,economical,andcommercial--that haveshapedcontemporaryChinesecities.ThebookconcludeswithJoseph ykwert's"Afterword:TheFourandtheFive,"whichattemptstorevealthedifferR encebetweentheChineseandWesternspatialconceptsbydelvingintotheir culturalroots.RykwertsuggeststhattheChinesenotionofthecenter,inaddition http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png China Review International University of Hawai'I Press

Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts (review)

China Review International , Volume 17 (3) – Jun 15, 2010

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Abstract

324 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.3,2010 subtlereinterpretationofthetermda,weawaitCheung'ssecondvolume.This word(likesomanyotherstobefoundinthevocabularyofChinesetranslation criticism)hasmeaningfarbeyonditsimmediateapplicationtotheuseoflanguage.ItisakeywordintheconceptionoftheConfuciantruegentleman,orthe Taoistmanofvirtue.Tocompletethecircle,thebesttranslator--theonewhocan reallypenetratetotheheartofatextandreturnwithitstruereincarnationin anotherlanguage--is,ultimately,agentlemanorgentlewoman,andaman/ woman ofvirtue.Sincerity,insight,andanopenheartandmindarethe requirements. AlthoughthetextsselectedbyCheungandherteamcanbefoundinmultiple Chinese-languageanthologies,Imyselfregretthatthisotherwisebeautifully producedandexcellentlyedited,designed,andindexedvolumedoesnotgiveus theChineseoriginals.Thiscasewouldhavebeenperfectfortheparallel-text format.Ifthatinclusionwasconsideredtoooff-puttingforthegeneralreader,the textscouldhavebeenprintedasanappendix.Perhapsinanotheredition? JohnMinford John Minford is a translator of Chinese literature. He is currently a professor of Chinese at the Australian National University. JeffreyW.Cody,NancyS.Steinhardt,andTonyAtkin,editors.Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts.Honolulu:UniversityofHawai`iPress; HongKong:HongKongUniversityPress,2011.xxi,385pp.Hardcover $52.00,isbn978-0-8248-3456-2. ThemarriagebetweentraditionalChinesearchitectureandtheBeaux-Arts design traditionisoneofthemostsignificanteventsinthearchitecturalfieldin twentieth-centuryChina.Thematchmakers,somefiftyChinesestudentsstudying architectureabroadduringtheearlyRepublicanperiod(1912­1949),mostofthem intheUnitedStateswithahandfulinEuropeandJapan,areknownasthefirst generationofChinesearchitects.BornduringthelasttwodecadesoftheQing dynasty(1644­1911)andprofessionallytrainedoverseasintheirearlyadulthoods, thisgenerationhadreceivedbothclassicalChineseandWesterneducationsand, thus,wasaperfectcandidateforthehistoricalroleitplayed.Theimpactthese architectsmadeontheconstructedenvironmentofmodernChinaisprofound andfar-reaching--fromthechangesinarchitecturalstylesanddesignprocessesto © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press Reviews 325 thedevelopmentofarchitecturaleducationandanewidentityforthearchitect. Theimpactcanstillbefeltinthedawnofthetwenty-firstcentury. Thisbook,Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts,editedbyJeffreyCody, NancySteinhardt,andTonyAtkin,isthefirstandmostcomprehensivebook dedicatedsolelytothisfusionoftraditionsinmodernChinesearchitecture.The sixteencontributors,includingthethreeeditors,includemanyleadingscholarsin thefieldandrepresentadiversityofacademicandprofessionalbackgroundsthat helptodeepenourunderstandingofmodernChinesearchitecture,inparticular, andtwentieth-centuryChina,ingeneral.Theyarefromavarietyofinstitutionsin theUnitedStates,Europe,mainlandChina,HongKong,Taiwan,andAustralia, manywitheducationaloracademicexperiencesintwoorthreeoftheseregions. Thecollectiveeffortofthesescholarsresultsinthisrich,complex,andpanoramic volume. Thefifteenchaptersaregroupedintothreeparts.Inpart1("Divergenceto Convergence"),twoarticles,"ChineseArchitectureontheEveoftheBeaux-Arts," byNancySteinhardt,and"JustWhatWasBeaux-ArtsArchitecturalComposition?"byDavidVanZanten,introducethetwodistinctivetraditionsbeforethey met,layingthefoundationsforfurtherdiscussionsonthecomplexinteractions betweenthem.Steinhardt'sarticlesummarizestheformalcharactersandfundamentalprinciplesoftraditionalChinesearchitectureandspatialdesign,highlightingthosefeaturescompatiblewiththeBeaux-Artsdesignprinciples.Though mainlyaddressingthequestionofwhyChina'sfirstgenerationofarchitectswas especiallyattractedtoBeaux-Arts,thearticleoffersnotonlyasuccincthistorical backgroundoftheencounter,butalsobasicknowledgeabouttraditionalChinese architecture,itsmosteminentexamples,texts(e.g.,Yingzao fashi),technicaldetails (e.g.,modularity),andproductionmode(e.g.,jiangren).Fromtheothersideofthe Chinese­Beaux-Artsmarriage,DavidVanZantenexaminesthekeyaspectsofthe Beaux-Artsapproachinarchitecturaldesign,whichisnotonlyanassemblageof formalfeatures(e.g.,symmetry,axis,eclecticism,andmonumentality),butalsoa designphilosophyandworkingprocess.Hisarticlealsoexplainsthewaythe AmericanBeaux-Arts,representedbyPaulPhilippeCret'ssystemattheUniversity ofPennsylvania,fromwhichmanyfirst-generationChinesearchitectslearned architecture,transformedtheelitistpracticeoftheFrenchEcoledesBeaux-Arts intoaprofessionaltrainingsystemhighlightingcompositionaleloquence. Withthefoundationslaidoutbytheprevioustwoarticles,part2("ConvergencetoInfluence")delvesintothedetailsabouthowBeaux-Artsinfluences Chinesearchitectureindifferenttimesandlocations.Thefirsttwoarticlesare both relatedtoarchitecturaleducation.TonyAtkin'sarticle,"ChineseArchitecture StudentsattheUniversityofPennsylvaniainthe1920s:Tradition,Exchange,and theSearchforModernity,"focusesonthemostinfluentialplaceandpersonduring thefirststageofthetransmissionofBeaux-ArtstoChina,PhiladelphiaandPaul Cret,respectively,andtheirimpactonsomeofthemostfamousfirst-generation 326 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.17,No.3,2010 Chinesearchitects(e.g.,LiangSicheng,YangTingbao,TongJun,andChenZhi). Thenextstep,howthesePenn-trainedChinesestudentsbroughtwhatthey learnedabroadhomeandstartedChina'sownmodernarchitecturaleducation,is consideredbyGuDaqinginhischapter"AnOutlineofBeaux-ArtsEducationin China:Transplantation,Localization,andEntrenchment."UsingtheSchoolof ArchitectureatSoutheastUniversityasanexample,GudividesmodernChinese architecturaleducationintothreemajorphases:from1927totheearly1950s,when theearliestarchitecturalschoolswerefoundedfollowingforeignmodels;fromthe early1950stotheearly1980s,whentheBeaux-Artsmethodwasintegratedwith ChinesecontentandbecamethemainstreaminChina'sarchitecturaleducation; andfromtheearly1980stothepresent,whentheBeaux-Artssystemwasboth enrichedandchallengedbyothermodels. Thelasttwoarticlesinpart2arebothrelatedtothewayBeaux-Artsadapted tochangingpoliticalsituations.FocusingonChinesearchitectureofthe1950s,K. SizhengFan'sarticle,"AClassicistArchitectureForUtopia:TheSovietContacts," examinestheimpactofStalinistclassicism(calledsocialistrealismintheSoviet UnionandChina)onChinesearchitectureandcityplanning.SharingwithBeauxArtsthecommonheritageofclassicismandeclecticism,Sovietsocialistrealism canbeeasilyacceptedbytheChinesearchitectsandeducators,whoweremostly trainedintheBeaux-Artstradition.TheBeaux-Artsmethod,thus,wasreframed toservethesocialistideology.FuChao-Ching'sarticle,"Beaux-ArtsPracticeand EducationbyChineseArchitectsinTaiwan,"providesasuccinctoutlineofthe Beaux-ArtsinfluenceonTaiwanesearchitectureduringdifferenthistoricalstages, fromtheperiodofJapanesecolonization(1895­1945)tothepost-1949period, whenTaiwanbecametheseatofthecentralnationalistgovernmentandthe mainlandimmigrantarchitectsbroughtmoreBeaux-Artslegacytotheisland. Part3("InfluencetoParadigm")providesmoredetailedcasestudieson individualarchitects,buildings,andspecialissuesofracism,ritual,andcityplanning.Theninearticlesinthispartarefurthergroupedintothreesections.Thefirst sectionconcentratesonthreeprominentfirstgenerationarchitect-architectural historians.In"YangTingbao,China'sModernArchitectintheTwentiethCentury," XingRuanarguesthatbeingmodernisamoralratherthanaformalissue.Modernityconcernsthecommonwell-beingofallpeoplesinsteadofovertemphasison culturalspecificityofasinglenation.Inthissense,YangTingbaoisamodern architect.SengKuan's"BetweenBeaux-ArtsandModernism:DongDayouandthe Architectureof1930sShanghai"concentratesonthelifeandcareerofDong Dayou,especiallyhis"GreaterShanghaiPlan"andthein-depthindividualarchitecturaldesignofitsciviccenter.Usingprivatehousesasexamples,thischapter alsodemonstratesthatthoughtrainedmainlyintheBeaux-Artstradition,Dong wascapableofavarietyofdesignmethod,includingmodernism.Inthethird article,"ElevationorFaçade:ARe-evaluationofLiangSicheng'sInterpretationof ChineseTimberArchitectureintheLightofBeaux-ArtsClassicism,"ZhaoChen Reviews 327 offersararecriticismofLiangSicheng,arguingthatLiang'scompositionalanalysis oftheelevationsofancientbuildingsisamisinterpretationoftraditionalChinese architecture,aresultofhisdeep-rootedWesternBeaux-Artsfocusonfaçade. Althoughalsofocusingoneitherindividualarchitectsorbuildings,thefour articlesinthesecondsectionofpart3aremorediversified,boththematically and methodologically.UsingLüYanzhi'scareerastheprimaryexample,Jeffrey Cody'sarticle"FromStudiotoPractice:ChineseandNon-ChineseArchitects WorkingTogether"exploresthedifficulties--mainlyracialprejudice--thenewly graduatedChinesearchitecturestudentsencounteredwhentheystartedpracticing intherealworld.Codyclassifiesthreedifferentworkingenvironments,which hecalls"niches,"inwhichearlyChinesearchitectschosetoworkinorderto surviveandcompetewithforeignfirms.FocusingontheSunYat-senMemorial in NanjingbyLüYanzhi,RudolfWagner's"Ritual,Architecture,Politics,and PublicityduringtheRepublic:EnshriningSunYat-sen"givesabrilliantanalysis of thepoliticalstrugglesovertheritualstocommemoratethefoundingfatherof theChineseRepublicanddemonstratesthatarchitectureispartofthepropaganda tolegitimizeparticularpoliticalclaims.DealingwithLüYanzhi'smemorial structureforSun,DelinLai's"TheSunYat-senMemorialAuditorium:APreaching SpaceforModernChina"ismethodologicallyquitedifferentfromWagner's article.Supportedbyaformalratherthantextualanalysisofarchitecture,Lai's articleestablishesatypologicalconnectionbetweentheChristianchurchandthe modernChineseauditorium,whichhenamesthe"preachingspace,"andargues thatthecreationoftheauditoriumservesmodernChina'snation-buildingproject. Lastinthissection,YungHoChang's"Zhangvs.Zhang--SymmetryandSplit:A DevelopmentinChineseArchitectureinthe1950sand1960s"analyzesthekey worksbytwofamousarchitects,ZhangBoandZhangKaiji,workingmainly duringthePeople'sRepublicperiod(1949­),andsuggeststhatthestylistic d ifferencesbetweenthetwoZhangsmayresultfromtheirdifferentfamily b ackgrounds. Thethirdsectioninpart3isonmodernChinesecityplanning,withPeter Carroll's"TheBeaux-ArtsinAnotherRegister:GovernmentalAdministrativeand CivicCentersinCityPlansoftheRepublicanEra"andZhangJie's"Chinese UrbanismbeyondtheBeaux-Arts"dealingwiththeperiodsbeforeandafter1949, respectively.Carroll'sarticlesamplesthelegacyoftheBeaux-Artsdesignincities ofnational(Shanghai,Nanjing),regional(Guangzhou),andlocal(Suzhou)levels duringtheRepublicanperiod.ZhangJie'sarticle,ontheotherhand,exploresa varietyofforces--social,political,cultural,economical,andcommercial--that haveshapedcontemporaryChinesecities.ThebookconcludeswithJoseph ykwert's"Afterword:TheFourandtheFive,"whichattemptstorevealthedifferR encebetweentheChineseandWesternspatialconceptsbydelvingintotheir culturalroots.RykwertsuggeststhattheChinesenotionofthecenter,inaddition

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China Review InternationalUniversity of Hawai'I Press

Published: Jun 15, 2010

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