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Articulating Citizenship: Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912–1942 (review)

Articulating Citizenship: Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912–1942... Reviews 179 5. WarrenI.Cohen,The Asian American Century (Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversity Press,2002),pp.79­127. 6. JamesReed,The Missionary Mind and American East Asia Policy, 1911­1915 (Cambridge, MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1983). 7. JohnKingFairbank,China Watch (Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1987), p.1. 8. JohnKingFairbank,China: A New History (Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress, 1992),p.xvii. RobertCulp.Articulating Citizenship:Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912­1942.HarvardEastAsianMonographs291. Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,2007.xvi,400pp.Hardcover $49.50,isbn978-0-674-02587-5. RobertCulp'sbookrevealshowsecondary-levelstudents,intellectuals,andpoliticalleadersplayedanactiveroleindemonstratingconceptsofcitizenshipduring theRepublicanperiod.Intheearlytwentiethcentury,theterm"citizen"literally meantguomin(peopleofthenation/state)andgongmin(publicpeople).LateQing andearlyRepublicanreformersformulatedtheideaofmoderncitizensasareactiontoforeignimperialism. Culp'sstudyexploressecondary-level(middleschool)students,anareathat mostscholarshaveoverlooked,tendingtofocusinsteadonuniversity-levelstudents.Articulating CitizenshipbuildsonHenriettaHarrison'sThe Making of the Republican Citizen,agroundbreakingstudyofetiquette,dress,andpoliticalritual intheearlyRepublicanera,whileattemptingtoexamineadifferentdimensionof citizenship.Inparticular,Culparguesthat"lessonsaboutnationalidentity,politicalparticipation,andthesocialorderinthelowerYangziregionsecondary schoolsreinforcedoneanotherandpromotedacoherentconceptionofrepublican citizenship,characterizedbydirectparticipationandpracticalactionforthe nation'swelfare"(p.9). CulpcentershisstudyonroughlytwodozenChinese-runregularmiddle schools(zhong xuexiao),aswellasnormalschools(shifan xuexiao),inthelower Yangziregion,particularlyJiangsuandZhejiangprovinces,Shanghai,andthe NationalistcapitalofNanjing.Heselectstheselocationsbecauseofitsexisting patternsofcivicactionandpoliticalparticipation,aresultofitsdistinctiveindigenouselitecultureandinfluencefromforeignnormsofpublicdecorum.Inaddition,ShanghaiandNanjinghousedthenationalpublishingcentersthatwere © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press 180 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 responsibleforthedisseminationofprintmediaandgovernmentpoliciestothe restofthecountry. Articulating Citizenshipisorganizedintosevenchapters.Chapter1outlines theinstitutionalframeworksofschoolsandpublishingcompanies.Intellectuals, educators,andreformistelitesallplayedprominentrolesinestablishingand runningsecondaryschools(p.23),andthissamegroupwasalsoresponsiblefor shapingthecontentoftextbooks--compiling,licensing,andcensoringinformation.OneofCulp'smajorthemes,runningthroughoutthestudy,istheshiftinthe extentofstatecontroloverRepublican-eraeducation.Duringthe1910sand1920s, publishinghouseshiredeliteintellectuals,whospreadtheirideasintextbooks withlittlestateinterference.However,after1927,theNationalistPartyeffectively censoredtextbookcontentaccordingtostate-approvedcurricula.Interestingly, onlyasmallnumberofstudentshadaccesstosecondaryeducation.Ontheeveof theSecondSino-JapaneseWar,therewereroughly100,000middleschoolstudents intheLowerYangziregion,andonlyabout500,000nationwide,inacountryof 400millionpeople(p.24). Inchapter2,Culpanalyzeshistoryandgeographytextbookstoexplorethe conceptofnationanditsrelationtorace,culture,andterritory.Morespecifically, studentsgleanedfromthesebookstheNationalistmessageofprotectingageobodyandethnoculturalcommunitythreatenedbyimperialism.Therefore,as moderncitizens,studentsneededtotakepartincivicactiontounifypolitically andculturally,aswellastodefend,theircountry'sborders. Chapter3examinesstudentself-governmentorganizations,whicheducators "imaginedasinstitutionsofdemocraticgovernmentinminiature"andwhichalso "cultivate[d]civicmoralitythroughcivicaction"(pp.100­101).AsCulpwrites, eliteintellectualsandeducatorsheldparticularideasaboutcivicrepublicanism thatemphasized"thecitizen'sfullandactiveparticipationinthepoliticalcommunity,"ideasthatgrewoutofWesternconceptions(p.103).Inparticular,John Dewey'svisionofdemocracyandcivicactionhighlyinfluencedRepublican-period intellectuals.Inthelate1910sandearly1920s,studentsexperimentedwithformsof directdemocracybyestablishingautonomousandself-regulatingself-government organizations.However,by1927,theNationalistPartybegantoimposegovernmentsupervisionontheseassociations.AgaintheNationaliststatebeganto tightenitsgriponstudentsduringtheNanjingDecade;despiteitspoliticalcontrol, partyleaders,nevertheless,continuedtopromoteandencouragestudentselfgovernmentorganizations,andCulparguesthattheNationalists'aimwas"to teachstudentsformsofpoliticalparticipationandcivicactionthatwouldcontributeto`construction,'"suchas"managingthepracticalaffairsofstudentlifeand encouragingstudentself-discipline"(p.116). Chapter4examinesmoretextbooks,inparticularthoseusedincivicsand languagecourses.Hereparty-doctrineandcivicstextspresentedstudentswiththe Reviews 181 imageof"societyasanorganismcomposedofcellularcitizens"(p.133).Inaddition,suchideaswereexposedtostudentsbeyondtheclassroomviastudysocieties, publiclectures,NewCultureMovementperiodicals,andleft-wingpublications.In thisway,studentsencounterednewnotionsofsocialorganizationandcivicroles, yetby1927,theNationalistgovernmentbegantocurbextracurricularactivities thathadspreadsuchideasduringthe1910sand1920s. Chapter5offersthemostintriguingexplorationofhowsecondaryschool studentsdemonstratedcitizenship.ExtendingagainfromHarrison'swork,along withAndrewMorris'Marrow of the Nation,CulpexploreshowRepublicanChina's "liberaldemocratictiyu [physicalculture]"contributedtoconstructinganation, particularlyintheformofathletics,aswellashowstudentattitudeandbehaviorin scouting,arts,athletics,andmilitarytrainingprovidedexamplesofcultural citizenship(pp.128,207).Inaddition,CulpcomparesandcontraststheNationalists'military-styletrainingwiththatofcontemporaryNaziGermany,FascistItaly, andearlyShowaJapan,recognizinghoweachpracticedextremedisciplineand regimentationbyemphasizingphysicalfitness,cleanliness,order,sacrificeforone's country,andobediencetoasinglepartyandleader.However,Nanjing-Decade Chinadiffersfromtheotherregimes,particularlybecauseitneverarticulatedan aggressive,expansionistforeignpolicy.Moreover,theNationalistParty,predominantlyfocusedondomesticgoals,wasinitiallyquiteambivalentwhenstudents andcitizenspushedforimplementationofmilitarytrainingfornationaldefense. ItsplatformchangedquicklyoncetheNationalistsfledtoTaiwan,whereChiang Kai-shekmandatedcompulsorymilitarytrainingforallseniorhighschoolstudentsinordertodefendtheislandfromimminentCommunistinvasion. Similarly,chapter6discussestheculturalperformanceofcitizenship.Culp writesofstudents'"civicritual,"whichhedefinesas"symboliccollectiveperformancethatorganizessocialandpoliticalrelationships,producesculturalpatterns, andservesasacontextfornegotiatingsocialpower"(pp.209­210).Secondary schoolsmostnotablyengagedinsuchritualsbyinsertingholidaysandmemorial daysintoschoolcalendars.Duringthesefestivities,studentsbowedtothenational flag,sangthenationalanthem,andlistenedtospeechesextollingtheRepublic. Chapter7examinestheearlyyearsoftheSecondSino-JapaneseWar,when theNationalistsandChineseCommunistParty(CCP)competedtomobilize studentsbyconnectingeducatedyouthcivicactiontotheirownpoliticalagendas. Withvaryingdegreesofsuccess,theCCPwasabletoattractmorestudentsthan theNationalists,yetCulpmaintainsthatstudentsbecameprimaryactorsinboth parties'mobilizationefforts. Intheconclusion,CulplooksbeyondtheRepublicanperiodanddiscusses citizenshipintheMaoandpost-Maoeras,evensuggestingparallelsbetweenthe conceptofcitizenshipduringtheRepublicanperiodandtheresurgentnationalism flourishinginChinatoday(pp.298­299).OneofthestrengthsofArticulating 182 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 CitizenshipisCulp'sabilitytodrawfromaplethoraofrichsourcesminedextensivelyfromarchivesandlibraries.Inhisbibliographicessay,henotestheuseof textbooks,governmentpolicystatements,schoolpublications,studentjournals, localperiodicals,memoirs,andinterviews.Culpalsoprovidesusefulcapsule biographiesofselectedRepublican-eratextbookauthorsinanappendix.His thoroughresearchhasunearthedawealthofinformationaboutsecondaryschool studentsandtheactiveroletheyplayedasmoderncitizensduringtheRepublican period.Itisamajorcontributiontoboththehistoryofeducationandthehistory ofRepublicanChina. JenniferLiu Jennifer Liu is an assistant professor of history at Central Michigan University, specializing in twentieth-century China and Taiwan. KerstinGrothmann.Die Arshe: Arbeitslieder aus dem traditionellen tibetischen Bauhandwerk.AlltagskulturenChinasundseinerNachbarn3. Wiesbaden:HarrassowitzVerlag,2011.165pp.Paperback38.00,isbn 978-3-447-06453-8. ThisisthethirdvolumetocomeoutoftheusefulseriesEverydayCulturesof ChinaandItsNeighbors,editedbytheanthropologistMareileFlitsch.Itstopicis thearshe http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png China Review International University of Hawai'I Press

Articulating Citizenship: Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912–1942 (review)

China Review International , Volume 18 (2) – Sep 19, 2011

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Reviews 179 5. WarrenI.Cohen,The Asian American Century (Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversity Press,2002),pp.79­127. 6. JamesReed,The Missionary Mind and American East Asia Policy, 1911­1915 (Cambridge, MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1983). 7. JohnKingFairbank,China Watch (Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,1987), p.1. 8. JohnKingFairbank,China: A New History (Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress, 1992),p.xvii. RobertCulp.Articulating Citizenship:Civic Education and Student Politics in Southeastern China, 1912­1942.HarvardEastAsianMonographs291. Cambridge,MA:HarvardUniversityPress,2007.xvi,400pp.Hardcover $49.50,isbn978-0-674-02587-5. RobertCulp'sbookrevealshowsecondary-levelstudents,intellectuals,andpoliticalleadersplayedanactiveroleindemonstratingconceptsofcitizenshipduring theRepublicanperiod.Intheearlytwentiethcentury,theterm"citizen"literally meantguomin(peopleofthenation/state)andgongmin(publicpeople).LateQing andearlyRepublicanreformersformulatedtheideaofmoderncitizensasareactiontoforeignimperialism. Culp'sstudyexploressecondary-level(middleschool)students,anareathat mostscholarshaveoverlooked,tendingtofocusinsteadonuniversity-levelstudents.Articulating CitizenshipbuildsonHenriettaHarrison'sThe Making of the Republican Citizen,agroundbreakingstudyofetiquette,dress,andpoliticalritual intheearlyRepublicanera,whileattemptingtoexamineadifferentdimensionof citizenship.Inparticular,Culparguesthat"lessonsaboutnationalidentity,politicalparticipation,andthesocialorderinthelowerYangziregionsecondary schoolsreinforcedoneanotherandpromotedacoherentconceptionofrepublican citizenship,characterizedbydirectparticipationandpracticalactionforthe nation'swelfare"(p.9). CulpcentershisstudyonroughlytwodozenChinese-runregularmiddle schools(zhong xuexiao),aswellasnormalschools(shifan xuexiao),inthelower Yangziregion,particularlyJiangsuandZhejiangprovinces,Shanghai,andthe NationalistcapitalofNanjing.Heselectstheselocationsbecauseofitsexisting patternsofcivicactionandpoliticalparticipation,aresultofitsdistinctiveindigenouselitecultureandinfluencefromforeignnormsofpublicdecorum.Inaddition,ShanghaiandNanjinghousedthenationalpublishingcentersthatwere © 2012 by University of Hawai`i Press 180 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 responsibleforthedisseminationofprintmediaandgovernmentpoliciestothe restofthecountry. Articulating Citizenshipisorganizedintosevenchapters.Chapter1outlines theinstitutionalframeworksofschoolsandpublishingcompanies.Intellectuals, educators,andreformistelitesallplayedprominentrolesinestablishingand runningsecondaryschools(p.23),andthissamegroupwasalsoresponsiblefor shapingthecontentoftextbooks--compiling,licensing,andcensoringinformation.OneofCulp'smajorthemes,runningthroughoutthestudy,istheshiftinthe extentofstatecontroloverRepublican-eraeducation.Duringthe1910sand1920s, publishinghouseshiredeliteintellectuals,whospreadtheirideasintextbooks withlittlestateinterference.However,after1927,theNationalistPartyeffectively censoredtextbookcontentaccordingtostate-approvedcurricula.Interestingly, onlyasmallnumberofstudentshadaccesstosecondaryeducation.Ontheeveof theSecondSino-JapaneseWar,therewereroughly100,000middleschoolstudents intheLowerYangziregion,andonlyabout500,000nationwide,inacountryof 400millionpeople(p.24). Inchapter2,Culpanalyzeshistoryandgeographytextbookstoexplorethe conceptofnationanditsrelationtorace,culture,andterritory.Morespecifically, studentsgleanedfromthesebookstheNationalistmessageofprotectingageobodyandethnoculturalcommunitythreatenedbyimperialism.Therefore,as moderncitizens,studentsneededtotakepartincivicactiontounifypolitically andculturally,aswellastodefend,theircountry'sborders. Chapter3examinesstudentself-governmentorganizations,whicheducators "imaginedasinstitutionsofdemocraticgovernmentinminiature"andwhichalso "cultivate[d]civicmoralitythroughcivicaction"(pp.100­101).AsCulpwrites, eliteintellectualsandeducatorsheldparticularideasaboutcivicrepublicanism thatemphasized"thecitizen'sfullandactiveparticipationinthepoliticalcommunity,"ideasthatgrewoutofWesternconceptions(p.103).Inparticular,John Dewey'svisionofdemocracyandcivicactionhighlyinfluencedRepublican-period intellectuals.Inthelate1910sandearly1920s,studentsexperimentedwithformsof directdemocracybyestablishingautonomousandself-regulatingself-government organizations.However,by1927,theNationalistPartybegantoimposegovernmentsupervisionontheseassociations.AgaintheNationaliststatebeganto tightenitsgriponstudentsduringtheNanjingDecade;despiteitspoliticalcontrol, partyleaders,nevertheless,continuedtopromoteandencouragestudentselfgovernmentorganizations,andCulparguesthattheNationalists'aimwas"to teachstudentsformsofpoliticalparticipationandcivicactionthatwouldcontributeto`construction,'"suchas"managingthepracticalaffairsofstudentlifeand encouragingstudentself-discipline"(p.116). Chapter4examinesmoretextbooks,inparticularthoseusedincivicsand languagecourses.Hereparty-doctrineandcivicstextspresentedstudentswiththe Reviews 181 imageof"societyasanorganismcomposedofcellularcitizens"(p.133).Inaddition,suchideaswereexposedtostudentsbeyondtheclassroomviastudysocieties, publiclectures,NewCultureMovementperiodicals,andleft-wingpublications.In thisway,studentsencounterednewnotionsofsocialorganizationandcivicroles, yetby1927,theNationalistgovernmentbegantocurbextracurricularactivities thathadspreadsuchideasduringthe1910sand1920s. Chapter5offersthemostintriguingexplorationofhowsecondaryschool studentsdemonstratedcitizenship.ExtendingagainfromHarrison'swork,along withAndrewMorris'Marrow of the Nation,CulpexploreshowRepublicanChina's "liberaldemocratictiyu [physicalculture]"contributedtoconstructinganation, particularlyintheformofathletics,aswellashowstudentattitudeandbehaviorin scouting,arts,athletics,andmilitarytrainingprovidedexamplesofcultural citizenship(pp.128,207).Inaddition,CulpcomparesandcontraststheNationalists'military-styletrainingwiththatofcontemporaryNaziGermany,FascistItaly, andearlyShowaJapan,recognizinghoweachpracticedextremedisciplineand regimentationbyemphasizingphysicalfitness,cleanliness,order,sacrificeforone's country,andobediencetoasinglepartyandleader.However,Nanjing-Decade Chinadiffersfromtheotherregimes,particularlybecauseitneverarticulatedan aggressive,expansionistforeignpolicy.Moreover,theNationalistParty,predominantlyfocusedondomesticgoals,wasinitiallyquiteambivalentwhenstudents andcitizenspushedforimplementationofmilitarytrainingfornationaldefense. ItsplatformchangedquicklyoncetheNationalistsfledtoTaiwan,whereChiang Kai-shekmandatedcompulsorymilitarytrainingforallseniorhighschoolstudentsinordertodefendtheislandfromimminentCommunistinvasion. Similarly,chapter6discussestheculturalperformanceofcitizenship.Culp writesofstudents'"civicritual,"whichhedefinesas"symboliccollectiveperformancethatorganizessocialandpoliticalrelationships,producesculturalpatterns, andservesasacontextfornegotiatingsocialpower"(pp.209­210).Secondary schoolsmostnotablyengagedinsuchritualsbyinsertingholidaysandmemorial daysintoschoolcalendars.Duringthesefestivities,studentsbowedtothenational flag,sangthenationalanthem,andlistenedtospeechesextollingtheRepublic. Chapter7examinestheearlyyearsoftheSecondSino-JapaneseWar,when theNationalistsandChineseCommunistParty(CCP)competedtomobilize studentsbyconnectingeducatedyouthcivicactiontotheirownpoliticalagendas. Withvaryingdegreesofsuccess,theCCPwasabletoattractmorestudentsthan theNationalists,yetCulpmaintainsthatstudentsbecameprimaryactorsinboth parties'mobilizationefforts. Intheconclusion,CulplooksbeyondtheRepublicanperiodanddiscusses citizenshipintheMaoandpost-Maoeras,evensuggestingparallelsbetweenthe conceptofcitizenshipduringtheRepublicanperiodandtheresurgentnationalism flourishinginChinatoday(pp.298­299).OneofthestrengthsofArticulating 182 ChinaReviewInternational:Vol.18,No.2,2011 CitizenshipisCulp'sabilitytodrawfromaplethoraofrichsourcesminedextensivelyfromarchivesandlibraries.Inhisbibliographicessay,henotestheuseof textbooks,governmentpolicystatements,schoolpublications,studentjournals, localperiodicals,memoirs,andinterviews.Culpalsoprovidesusefulcapsule biographiesofselectedRepublican-eratextbookauthorsinanappendix.His thoroughresearchhasunearthedawealthofinformationaboutsecondaryschool studentsandtheactiveroletheyplayedasmoderncitizensduringtheRepublican period.Itisamajorcontributiontoboththehistoryofeducationandthehistory ofRepublicanChina. JenniferLiu Jennifer Liu is an assistant professor of history at Central Michigan University, specializing in twentieth-century China and Taiwan. KerstinGrothmann.Die Arshe: Arbeitslieder aus dem traditionellen tibetischen Bauhandwerk.AlltagskulturenChinasundseinerNachbarn3. Wiesbaden:HarrassowitzVerlag,2011.165pp.Paperback38.00,isbn 978-3-447-06453-8. ThisisthethirdvolumetocomeoutoftheusefulseriesEverydayCulturesof ChinaandItsNeighbors,editedbytheanthropologistMareileFlitsch.Itstopicis thearshe

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China Review InternationalUniversity of Hawai'I Press

Published: Sep 19, 2011

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