Book Reviews All Can Be Saved: Religious Tolerance and Salvation in the Iberian Atlantic World. By stuart b. schwartz. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2008. 352 pp. $40.00 (cloth). In this impressively wide-ranging study of religious sentiment in the early modern Atlantic, Schwartz poses questions that speak directly to the anxieties of our own time and place: Where do ideas of tolerance originate? Did attitudes of tolerance survive notorious periods of suppression such as that of the Inquisition? Schwartz turns the tables with his answers: he argues that the torch of tolerance was lit and nourished not by "philosopher-kings" like the eighteenth century's Voltaire, but by the "plain folks" (p. 139) of the Iberian world at a far earlier and more guarded moment of imposed orthodoxy. His protagonists, "rustic Pelagians" (p. 242) from across the Spanish and Portuguese empires, were mostly uneducated, disorganized, outnumbered, and harshly punished. But their opposition to state policies of intolerance persisted over time, creating a social context conducive to home-grown, experiencebased notions of justice. Schwartz emphasizes two generally overlooked groups among these dissidents summoned before the Inquisition. He highlights "Old Christians" (p. 12) from Iberia's majority population, and foreigners including Dutch, French,
Journal of World History – University of Hawai'I Press
Published: Feb 3, 2010
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