Abstract Dopamine, like other neurotransmitters, exerts its biological effects by occupation of specific receptor subtypes. The dopamine receptors in the central nervous system and certain endocrine organs are classified into the D1/D2 subtypes. Outside the central nervous system, the dopamine receptors are classified into the DA1/DA2 subtypes. The D1/D2 and DA1/DA2 receptor have marked similarities and some differences, the most notable of which is the lower affinity of the DA dopamine compared with the D dopamine receptor. DA1 receptor activation increases renal blood flow (RBF); stimulation of DA1 and DA2 receptors may also increase glomerular filtration rate (GFR). DA1 agonists inhibit fluid and electrolyte transport indirectly via hemodynamic mechanisms and directly by occupation of DA1 receptors in specific nephron segments. In the proximal tubule, DA1 agonists simulate adenylate cyclase and inhibit Na+-H+ antiport activity. They also increase phospholipase C and inhibit Na+-K+-ATPase activity (presumably as a consequence of protein kinase C activation). The latter effects may be facilitated by DA2 agonists. In cortical collecting ducts, dopamine antagonizes the effects of mineralocorticoids and the hydrosomotic effect of antidiuretic hormone. It has also been suggested that DA1 may also decrease sodium transport by influencing other hormones, such as atrial natriuretic peptide. Studies of dopamine in the young are complicated because of the propensity for dopamine to stimulate alpha-adrenoceptors. Dopamine alone may actually decrease RBF in the perinatal period. In some animals, the renal vasodilatory and natriuretic effects of dopamine increase with age. Renal tubular DA1-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increases, whereas renal tubular DA1 receptors decrease with age. Renal DA2 receptor density is greater in the fetus; after birth renal DA2 receptors do not change. Endogenous dopamine may regulate sodium excretion in the young differently than in the adult. In the adult, sodium surfeit is associated with an increase in urinary dopamine; the opposite occurs in the young. A decrease in dopamine production or blockade of dopamine receptors results in an antinatriuresis in the adult; dopamine blockade in the young results in a natriuresis. It remains to be determined whether these age-related differences in dopamine effects are due to changes in receptor DA subtype density, second messengers, and/or interaction with other receptors. Copyright © 1989 the American Physiological Society
AJP - Renal Physiology – The American Physiological Society
Published: Sep 1, 1989
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