Growth factor receptor-bound 10 (Grb10) is an adaptor protein that binds to the insulin receptor, upon which insulin signaling and action is thought to be inhibited. Grb10 is also a substrate for the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) that mediates its feedback inhibition on phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. To characterize the function of Grb10 and its regulation by mTORC1 in human muscle, primary skeletal muscle cells were isolated from healthy lean young men and then induced to differentiate into myotubes. Knockdown of Grb10 enhanced insulin-induced PI3K/Akt signaling and glucose uptake in myotubes, reinforcing the notion underlying its function as a negative regulator of insulin action in human muscle. The increased insulin sensitivity responsiveness in Grb10-silenced myotubes was associated with higher abundance of the insulin receptor. Furthermore, insulin and amino acids independently and additively stimulated phosphorylation of Grb10 at Ser476. However, acute inhibition of mTORC1 with rapamycin blocked Grb10 Ser476 phosphorylation and repressed a negative-feedback loop on PI3K/Akt signaling that increased myotube responsiveness to insulin. Chronic rapamycin treatment reduced Grb10 protein abundance in conjunction with increased insulin receptor protein levels. Based on these findings, we propose that mTORC1 controls PI3K/Akt signaling through modulation of insulin receptor abundance by Grb10. These findings have potential implications for obesity-linked insulin resistance, as well as clinical use of mTORC1 inhibitors.
AJP - Endocrinology and Metabolism – The American Physiological Society
Published: Jan 22, 2019
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