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Indoxyl sulfate promotes vascular smooth muscle cell senescence with upregulation of p53, p21, and prelamin A through oxidative stress

We previously demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin, induces aortic calcification in hypertensive rats and induces oxidative stress and the expression of osteoblast-specific proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells. This study aimed to clarify whether IS stimulates senescence of cultured human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and aorta in Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats and whether AST-120, an oral sorbent, prevents senescence of aorta in subtotally nephrectomized uremic rats. IS increased the mRNA expression of p53 and p21 in HASMCs, whereas it did not change that of p16 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb). The IS-induced expression of p53 and p21 was suppressed by N -acetylcysteine, an antioxidant. IS promoted protein expression of p53, p21, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity in HASMCs, and N -acetylcysteine and pifithrin-α, p -nitro, a p53 inhibitor, blocked these effects. IS upregulated prelamin A, a hallmark of vascular smooth muscle cell senescence, and downregulated FACE1/Zempste24 protein expression in HASMCs, and N -acetylcysteine suppressed these effects. Administration of IS to hypertensive rats increased expression of SA-β-gal, p53, p21, prelamin A, and oxidative stress markers such as 8-hydroxyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the cells embedded in the calcification area of arcuate aorta. Further, the uremic rat model showed positive staining for SA-β-gal, p53, p21, prelamin A, 8-OHdG, and MDA in the cells embedded in the calcification area of arcuate aorta, whereas AST-120 reduced the expression of these biomarkers. Taken together, IS accelerates vascular smooth muscle cell senescence with upregulation of p53, p21, and prelamin A and downregulation of FACE1 through oxidative stress. uremic toxin vascular smooth muscle cells Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society « Previous | Next Article » Table of Contents This Article Published online before print May 2, 2012 , doi: 10.​1152/​ajpcell.​00329.​2011 Am J Physiol Cell Physiol July 15, 2012 vol. 303 no. 2 C126-C134 » Abstract Free Full Text Free to you Full Text (PDF) Free to you All Versions of this Article: ajpcell.00329.2011v1 303/2/C126 most recent Classifications Article Services Email this article to a friend Alert me when this article is cited Alert me if a correction is posted Similar articles in this journal Similar articles in Web of Science Similar articles in PubMed Download to citation manager Citing Articles Load citing article information Citing articles via Web of Science Google Scholar Articles by Muteliefu, G. Articles by Niwa, T. PubMed PubMed citation Articles by Muteliefu, G. Articles by Niwa, T. Related Content Load related web page information Current Content July 15, 2012 Alert me to new issues of Am J Physiol Cell Physiol About the Journal Calls for Papers Information for Authors Submit a Manuscript Ethical Policies AuthorChoice PubMed Central Policy Reprints and Permissions Advertising Press Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society Print ISSN: 0363-6143 Online ISSN: 1522-1563 var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try { var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-2924550-1"); pageTracker._trackPageview(); } catch(err) {} var gaJsHost = (("https:" == document.location.protocol) ? "https://ssl." : "http://www."); document.write(unescape("%3Cscript src='" + gaJsHost + "google-analytics.com/ga.js' type='text/javascript'%3E%3C/script%3E")); try { var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker("UA-189672-30"); pageTracker._setDomainName(".physiology.org"); pageTracker._trackPageview(); } catch(err) {} http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png AJP - Cell Physiology The American Physiological Society

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