Exercise and the Immune System: Regulation, Integration, and Adaptation

Exercise and the Immune System: Regulation, Integration, and Adaptation Abstract Stress-induced immunological reactions to exercise have stimulated much research into stress immunology and neuroimmunology. It is suggested that exercise can be employed as a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical stress. The exercise-stress model can be easily manipulated experimentally and allows for the study of interactions between the nervous, the endocrine, and the immune systems. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying exercise-induced immune changes such as neuroendocrinological factors including catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, β-endorphin, and sex steroids. The contribution of a metabolic link between skeletal muscles and the lymphoid system is also reviewed. The mechanisms of exercise-associated muscle damage and the initiation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade are discussed. Given that exercise modulates the immune system in healthy individuals, considerations of the clinical ramifications of exercise in the prevention of diseases for which the immune system has a role is of importance. Accordingly, drawing on the experimental, clinical, and epidemiological literature, we address the interactions between exercise and infectious diseases as well as exercise and neoplasia within the context of both aging and nutrition. Footnotes Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: B. K. Pedersen, Dept. of Infectious Diseases M7721, Rigshospitalet, Tagensvej 20, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark (E-mail: bkp@rh.dk ). Copyright © 2000 The American Physiological Society http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Physiological Reviews The American Physiological Society

Exercise and the Immune System: Regulation, Integration, and Adaptation

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Publisher
The American Physiological Society
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 the American Physiological Society
ISSN
0031-9333
eISSN
1522-1210
Publisher site
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Abstract

Abstract Stress-induced immunological reactions to exercise have stimulated much research into stress immunology and neuroimmunology. It is suggested that exercise can be employed as a model of temporary immunosuppression that occurs after severe physical stress. The exercise-stress model can be easily manipulated experimentally and allows for the study of interactions between the nervous, the endocrine, and the immune systems. This review focuses on mechanisms underlying exercise-induced immune changes such as neuroendocrinological factors including catecholamines, growth hormone, cortisol, β-endorphin, and sex steroids. The contribution of a metabolic link between skeletal muscles and the lymphoid system is also reviewed. The mechanisms of exercise-associated muscle damage and the initiation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade are discussed. Given that exercise modulates the immune system in healthy individuals, considerations of the clinical ramifications of exercise in the prevention of diseases for which the immune system has a role is of importance. Accordingly, drawing on the experimental, clinical, and epidemiological literature, we address the interactions between exercise and infectious diseases as well as exercise and neoplasia within the context of both aging and nutrition. Footnotes Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: B. K. Pedersen, Dept. of Infectious Diseases M7721, Rigshospitalet, Tagensvej 20, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark (E-mail: bkp@rh.dk ). Copyright © 2000 The American Physiological Society

Journal

Physiological ReviewsThe American Physiological Society

Published: Jul 1, 2000

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