Acetylcholine stimulates the release of endothelium-derived arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites including prostacyclin and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which relax coronary arteries. However, mechanisms of endothelial cell (EC) AA activation remain undefined. We propose that 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) plays an important role in this pathway. An AA metabolite isolated from bovine coronary ECs was identified as 2-AG by mass spectrometry. In ECs pretreated with the fatty acid amidohydrolase inhibitor diazomethylarachidonyl ketone (DAK; 20 µmol/l), methacholine (10 µmol/l)-stimulated 2-AG release was blocked by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 (10 µmol/l) or the diacylglycerol lipase inhibitor RHC-80267 (40 µmol/l). In U-46619-preconstricted bovine coronary arterial rings, 2-AG relaxations averaging 100% at 10 µmol/l were inhibited by endothelium removal, by DAK, by the hydrolase inhibitor methyl arachidonylfluorophosphate (10 µmol/l), by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (10 µmol/l), but not by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist SR-141716 (1 µmol/l). The cytochrome P -450 inhibitor SKF-525a (10 µmol/l) and the 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5 Z -enoic acid EET antagonist (14,15-EEZE; 10 µmol/l) further attenuated the indomethacin-resistant relaxations. The nonhydrolyzable 2-AG analogs noladin ether, 2-AG amide, and 14,15-EET glycerol amide did not induce relaxation. N -nitro- L -arginine-resistant relaxations to methacholine were also inhibited by U-73122, RHC-80267, and DAK. 14,15-EET glycerol ester increased opening of large-conductance K + channels 12-fold in cell-attached patches of isolated smooth muscle cells and induced relaxations averaging 95%. These results suggest that methacholine stimulates EC 2-AG production through phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase activation. 2-AG is further hydrolyzed to AA, which is metabolized to vasoactive eicosanoids. These studies reveal a role for 2-AG in EC AA release and the regulation of coronary tone. arachidonic acid; epoxyeicosatrienoic acids; vascular relaxation; prostacyclin; endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: K. M. Gauthier, Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226 (E-mail: email@example.com )
AJP - Heart and Circulatory Physiology – The American Physiological Society
Published: Mar 1, 2005
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