.. The function of the mammalian brain depends on a continuous supply of O2and glucose. When the brain no longer receives either of these substances, loss of function occurs quickly (83, 254), and viability is endangered when the lack of substrates persists for more than a few minutes (51, 83). These special conditions, which are not found in any other organ, present an important pathophysiological and clinical problem. 0031-9333/85 $1.50 Copyright 0 1985 the American Physiological Society 101 ANKER JON HANSEN Volume This review deals with ion movements in the brain under conditions in which the energy metabolism of the brain has been compromised, with special emphasis on ion concentration changes in the interstitial space. The dysfunction of the brain and of ion movements may be linked, because normal brain function requires an intact ion distribution. During action potentials and synaptic activity there is a net gain of Na+ and Ca2+ in nerve cells. Albeit passive in nature, these processes can only take place if the ions are maintained in electrochemical disequilibrium across the nerve membrane at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Brain energy metabolism regenerates ATP, which is the main substrate fueling active ion transport. Accordingly the
Physiological Reviews – The American Physiological Society
Published: Jan 1, 1985
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