Muscle strength, the maximal force-generating capacity of a muscle or group of muscles, is regularly assessed in physiological experiments and clinical trials. An understanding of the expected variation in strength and the factors that contribute to this variation is important when designing experiments, describing methodologies, interpreting results, and attempting to replicate methods of others and reproduce their findings. In this review (Cores of Reproducibility in Physiology), we report on the intra- and inter-rater reliability of tests of upper and lower limb muscle strength and voluntary activation in humans. Isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength exhibit good intra-rater reliability in most samples (correlation coefficients ≥0.90). However, some tests of isoinertial strength exhibit systematic bias that is not resolved by familiarization. With the exception of grip strength, few attempts have been made to examine inter-rater reliability of tests of muscle strength. The acute factors most likely to affect muscle strength and serve as a source of its variation from trial-to-trial or day-to-day include attentional focus, breathing technique, remote muscle contractions, rest periods, temperature (core, muscle), time of day, visual feedback, body and limb posture, body stabilization, acute caffeine consumption, dehydration, pain, fatigue from preceding exercise, and static stretching >60 s. Voluntary activation, the nervous system’s ability to drive a muscle to create its maximal force, exhibits good intra-rater reliability when examined with twitch interpolation (correlation coefficients >0.80). However, inter-rater reliability has not been formally examined. The methodological factors most likely to influence voluntary activation are myograph compliance and sensitivity; stimulation location, intensity, and inadvertent stimulation of antagonists; joint angle (muscle length); and the resting twitch.
Journal of Applied Physiology – The American Physiological Society
Published: Mar 1, 2019
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Already have an account? Log in
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.
Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote
EndNoteExport to EndNote
ok to continue