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Chloride transport by high-resistance heterocellular epithelia

I. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF REVIEW Maintenance of constant extracellular body fluid volumes and their osmotic and ionic concentrations depends on the regulated exchange of water and solutes across epithelia. These functions are accomplished by polarized epithelial cells, that is, the surface s of the two opposite sides of the cell containing different transport systems (147). Whether the epithelium forms a plane sheet or a tube, tight junctions (occluding zonules) form a continuous seal around the cell, providing a selective route for the exchange of molecules between the cells (10, 90, 320). The terminology of lowversus high-resistance epithelia was introduced for dis0031-9333/91 $1.50 Copyright 0 1991 the American Physiological Society tinguishing between classes of epithelia of different paracellular conductance properties and functions in regulating ion and water content of body fluids (92). Low-resistance epithelia are usually specialized for bulk water transport in the absence of transepithelial osmotic gradients (“isosmotic water transport”). The occluding zonules are leaky, and the paracellular pathway constitutes a principal route for ion fluxes. High-resistance epithelia are maintaining or building up steep ion gradients between external and body fluid compartments. The occluding zonules constitute a tight seal restricting diffusion, and principal pathways of transepithelial fluxes http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Physiological Reviews The American Physiological Society

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