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Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization

Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization Abstract This study uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model specially constructed for investigating gender dimensions of the effects of trade liberalization in Pakistan in both production and consumption. The model employs various indicators to measure the gendered impacts, including income poverty (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke [FGT] Indices), time poverty (leisure), capability poverty (literacy and infant mortality), and welfare (Equivalent Variation [EV]). The simulation results show that revenue-neutral trade liberalization in Pakistan increased women's employment in unskilled jobs and increased women's real wage income more than men's for all types of labor, but kept the division of labor biased against women. The study finds that Pakistan's trade liberalization adversely affected women in relatively poor households by increasing their workload, deteriorating capabilities, and increasing relative income poverty. However, the effects remained gender neutral or favored women in the richest group of households. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Feminist Economics Taylor & Francis

Modeling Gender Effects of Pakistan's Trade Liberalization

Feminist Economics , Volume 15 (3): 35 – Jul 1, 2009
35 pages

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References (61)

Publisher
Taylor & Francis
Copyright
Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN
1466-4372
eISSN
1354-5701
DOI
10.1080/13545700902964295
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract This study uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model specially constructed for investigating gender dimensions of the effects of trade liberalization in Pakistan in both production and consumption. The model employs various indicators to measure the gendered impacts, including income poverty (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke [FGT] Indices), time poverty (leisure), capability poverty (literacy and infant mortality), and welfare (Equivalent Variation [EV]). The simulation results show that revenue-neutral trade liberalization in Pakistan increased women's employment in unskilled jobs and increased women's real wage income more than men's for all types of labor, but kept the division of labor biased against women. The study finds that Pakistan's trade liberalization adversely affected women in relatively poor households by increasing their workload, deteriorating capabilities, and increasing relative income poverty. However, the effects remained gender neutral or favored women in the richest group of households.

Journal

Feminist EconomicsTaylor & Francis

Published: Jul 1, 2009

Keywords: Capabilities; gender; poverty; trade liberalization; JEL Codes: C68, J16, O24

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