Irritant and cytotoxic coumarins from Angelica glauca Edgew roots
AbstractIrritant and cytotoxic potentiality of six coumarins, isolated for the first time from the roots of Angelica glauca identified as 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin, 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, bergapten, decursinol angelate, decursin, and nodakenetin, were investigated. The irritant potential was explored by open mouse ear assay, evaluating their ID 50 after acute and by IU (Irritant units) after chronic effects, while the cytotoxic capability was explored by their LC 50 , using brine shrimp ( Artemia salina ) larvae (nauplii). All the coumarins exhibited well-defined irritancy on mouse's ears, compared with the positive controlled euphorbium reaction and cytotoxic response against brine shrimp larvae, compared with the positive control colchicine. Decursinol angelate and decursin were the most potent and persistent irritant compounds with least ID 50 , whose reactions lasted for 48 h. 6-Methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin and bergaten revealed an intermediate irritant reactions, while 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin and nodakenetin displayed the least irritant and least persistent reactions on mouse ears. Both decursin and decursinol angelate also appeared to be the stronger cytotoxic agents than other coumarins. 5,6,7-trimethoxycoumarin displayed an intermediate cytotoxic behaviour, while other three coumarins, i.e., 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxycoumarin, bergapten, and nodakenetin, exhibited the least cytotoxic capacity against brine shrimp larvae.